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Molecules 2011, 16(12), 9925-9938; doi:10.3390/molecules16129925
Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze and Its Synergism with Different Antibiotics

1
, 2
, 3
, 3
 and 3,*
1 Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, PR CEP 87020-900, Brazil 2 Departamento de Farmácia e Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, PR. CEP 87020-900, Brazil 3 Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, PR. CEP 87020-900 Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2011 / Revised: 6 November 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 1 December 2011
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Abstract

One of the oldest forms of medical practice is the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of diseases that affect humans. We have studied the antimicrobial activity and synergism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze with different antibiotics. The crude extract from the leaves of P. gaudichaudianum was submitted to chromatographic separation, resulting in five fractions. Fraction F3 contained a chromone (2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxycroman-4-one), and fraction F2 contained isomers that are prenylated derivatives of benzoic acid [4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-E-2'-6'-dienyl)benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-2'-Z-6'-dienyl) benzoic acid]. The chemical structures of both compounds were determined by analysis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COZY, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC spectral data, and by comparison with data in the literature. The crude extract, fraction F2, and fraction F3 showed good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida tropicalis. The two benzoic acid derivatives only showed activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis. The bioauthographic analysis showed an inhibition zone only in fraction F2. Fractions F2 and F3 showed synergism in combination with ceftriaxone, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Morphological changes in form and structure were found by scanning electron microscopy in S. aureus treated with the combination of fraction F2 with vancomycin.
Keywords: Piper gaudichaudianum; chromone; prenylated derivatives; antimicrobial activity; synergism Piper gaudichaudianum; chromone; prenylated derivatives; antimicrobial activity; synergism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Puhl, M.C.M.N.; Cortez, D.A.G.; Ueda-Nakamura, T.; Nakamura, C.V.; Filho, B.P.D. Antimicrobial Activity of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze and Its Synergism with Different Antibiotics. Molecules 2011, 16, 9925-9938.

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