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Molecules 2011, 16(12), 10093-10103; doi:10.3390/molecules161210093

Snailase Preparation of Ginsenoside M1 from Protopanaxadiol-Type Ginsenoside and Their Protective Effects Against CCl4-Induced Chronic Hepatotoxicity in Mice

1
Norman Bethune College of Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2
College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
3
Institute of Special Wild Economic Animals and Plant, CAAS, Jilin 132109, China
4
China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130033, China
These authors contributed equally to this work and were considered co-first authors.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2011 / Revised: 24 November 2011 / Accepted: 29 November 2011 / Published: 6 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

To investigate the protective effects of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside (PDG) and its metabolite ginsenoside M1 (G-M1) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic liver injury in ICR mice, we carried out conversion of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides to ginsenoside M1 using snailase. The optimum time for the conversion was 24 h at a constant pH of 4.5 and an optimum temperature of 50 °C. The transformation products were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ion-mass spectrometry. Subsequently, most of PDG was decomposed and converted into G-M1 by 24 h post-reaction. During the study on hepatoprotective in a mice model of chronic liver injury, PDG or G-M1 supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl4-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of select hepatic enzyme markers (alanine aminotransferase, ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and malondialdehyde and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in liver. Histopathology of the liver tissues showed that PDG and G-M1 attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and led to reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration. Therefore, the results of this study show that PDG and G-M1 can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative injury in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be attributed to amelioration of oxidative stress.
Keywords: ginsenoside M1; protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside; hepatoprotective effect ginsenoside M1; protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside; hepatoprotective effect
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, W.; Zhang, M.; Zheng, Y.-N.; Li, J.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wang, Y.-J.; Gu, J.; Jin, Y.; Wang, H.; Chen, L. Snailase Preparation of Ginsenoside M1 from Protopanaxadiol-Type Ginsenoside and Their Protective Effects Against CCl4-Induced Chronic Hepatotoxicity in Mice. Molecules 2011, 16, 10093-10103.

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