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Molecules 2011, 16(10), 8463-8474; doi:10.3390/molecules16108463

An Unexpected Reaction between 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids at High Temperatures

1,3, 1, 1,2,*  and 1,2,*
1 Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China 2 Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian 116023, China 3 Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Sciences of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission & Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2011 / Revised: 14 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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A new compound was detected during the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from glucose and cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) at high temperatures. Further experiments found that it was derived from the reaction of HMF with [Bmim]Cl. The structure of new compound was established as 1-butyl-2-(5’-methyl-2’-furoyl)imidazole (BMI) based on nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analysis, and a possible mechanism for its formation was proposed. Reactions of HMF with other imidazolium-based ionic liquids were performed to check the formation of BMI. Our results provided new insights in terms of side reactions between HMF and imidazolium-based ionic liquids, which should be valuable for designing better processes for the production of furans using biomass and related materials.
Keywords: side reaction; HMF; ionic liquids; 1-butyl-2-(5’-methyl-2’-furoyl)imidazole side reaction; HMF; ionic liquids; 1-butyl-2-(5’-methyl-2’-furoyl)imidazole
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Zhang, Z.; Liu, W.; Xie, H.; Zhao, Z.K. An Unexpected Reaction between 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids at High Temperatures. Molecules 2011, 16, 8463-8474.

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