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Molecules 2011, 16(10), 8228-8243; doi:10.3390/molecules16108228
Article

SFE-CO2 Extract from Typhonium giganteum Engl. Tubers, Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma SMMC-7721 Cells Involvement of a ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway

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1 Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China 2 Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2011 / Revised: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 22 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
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Abstract

Typhonium giganteum Engl. (BaiFuzi) is one of the herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine against cancer. In our previous studies, 37 compounds were identified the SFE-CO2 (supercritical fluid extraction with CO2) extract by GC-MS, including the four major components [β-sitosterol (40.22%), campesterol (18.45%), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.52%) and (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (8.15%)]. The anti-cancer mechanisms of the SFE-CO2 extract from T. giganteum Engl. tubers have not been reported as yet. In this paper, the molecular mechanisms of the SFE-CO2 extract-mediated apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells were further examined. SFE-CO2 extract inhibited the growth of SMMC-7721 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and G2/M phase, and induced apoptosis. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, a rise in intracellular calcium levels were found in SMMC-7721 cells after treated with the extract. Western blot analysis showed that the extract caused down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulation of Bax expression. Moreover, caspase-3 and caspase-9 protease activity significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results showed that the SFE-CO2 extract from T. giganteum Engl. tubers induces apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells involving a ROS-mediated mitochondrial signalling pathway.
Keywords: Typhonium giganteum Engl.; SFE-CO2 extract; SMMC-7721; Apoptosis; ROS Typhonium giganteum Engl.; SFE-CO2 extract; SMMC-7721; Apoptosis; ROS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Li, Q.; Jiang, C.; Zu, Y.; Song, Z.; Zhang, B.; Meng, X.; Qiu, W.; Zhang, L. SFE-CO2 Extract from Typhonium giganteum Engl. Tubers, Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma SMMC-7721 Cells Involvement of a ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway. Molecules 2011, 16, 8228-8243.

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