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Palladium(0) Deposited on PAMAM Dendrimers as a Catalyst for C–C Cross Coupling Reactions
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie Str., 50-383 Wrocław, Poland
Faculty of Chemistry, Rzeszów University of Technology, 6 Powstańców Warszawy Ave., 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2010; in revised form: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 7 January 2011 / Published: 10 January 2011
Abstract: PAMAM dendrimers of generations G2–G3 as well as a partially substituted derivative of generation G4 and a low-molecular-weight tricyclic ligand 4 were used to bind Pd(0) nanoparticles. The obtained adducts were tested as catalysts for C–C cross-coupling reactions, such as the Suzuki-Miyaura, Hiyama, Heck and Sonogashira reaction. The highest yields of the coupling product, diphenylacetylene, were obtained with all the catalysts studied in the Sonogashira coupling performed in ethanol with K2CO3 as base. Very good results, 85–100%, were also found in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, while the efficiency of the Hiyama coupling appeared lower, with 38–52% of 2-Methylbiphenyl formed. In all reactions, the G2–Pd(0) catalyst, containing an unmodified dendrimer, afforded the highest yields of the cross-coupling products.
Keywords: palladium nanoparticles; dendrimers; Suzuki-Miyaura coupling; Heck coupling; Hiyama coupling; Sonogashira coupling; TEM
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Borkowski, T.; Subik, P.; Trzeciak, A.M.; Wołowiec, S. Palladium(0) Deposited on PAMAM Dendrimers as a Catalyst for C–C Cross Coupling Reactions. Molecules 2011, 16, 427-441.
Borkowski T, Subik P, Trzeciak AM, Wołowiec S. Palladium(0) Deposited on PAMAM Dendrimers as a Catalyst for C–C Cross Coupling Reactions. Molecules. 2011; 16(1):427-441.
Borkowski, Tomasz; Subik, Paweł; Trzeciak, Anna M.; Wołowiec, Stanisław. 2011. "Palladium(0) Deposited on PAMAM Dendrimers as a Catalyst for C–C Cross Coupling Reactions." Molecules 16, no. 1: 427-441.