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Molecules 2011, 16(1), 427-441; doi:10.3390/molecules16010427
Article

Palladium(0) Deposited on PAMAM Dendrimers as a Catalyst for C–C Cross Coupling Reactions

1
, 2
, 1,*  and 2,*
1 Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie Str., 50-383 Wrocław, Poland 2 Faculty of Chemistry, Rzeszów University of Technology, 6 Powstańców Warszawy Ave., 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2010 / Revised: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 7 January 2011 / Published: 10 January 2011
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Abstract

PAMAM dendrimers of generations G2–G3 as well as a partially substituted derivative of generation G4 and a low-molecular-weight tricyclic ligand 4 were used to bind Pd(0) nanoparticles. The obtained adducts were tested as catalysts for C–C cross-coupling reactions, such as the Suzuki-Miyaura, Hiyama, Heck and Sonogashira reaction. The highest yields of the coupling product, diphenylacetylene, were obtained with all the catalysts studied in the Sonogashira coupling performed in ethanol with K2CO3 as base. Very good results, 85–100%, were also found in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, while the efficiency of the Hiyama coupling appeared lower, with 38–52% of 2-Methylbiphenyl formed. In all reactions, the G2–Pd(0) catalyst, containing an unmodified dendrimer, afforded the highest yields of the cross-coupling products.
Keywords: palladium nanoparticles; dendrimers; Suzuki-Miyaura coupling; Heck coupling; Hiyama coupling; Sonogashira coupling; TEM palladium nanoparticles; dendrimers; Suzuki-Miyaura coupling; Heck coupling; Hiyama coupling; Sonogashira coupling; TEM
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Borkowski, T.; Subik, P.; Trzeciak, A.M.; Wołowiec, S. Palladium(0) Deposited on PAMAM Dendrimers as a Catalyst for C–C Cross Coupling Reactions. Molecules 2011, 16, 427-441.

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