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Molecules 2011, 16(1), 162-174; doi:10.3390/molecules16010162
Article

The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

1
, 1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 24 November 2010; in revised form: 15 December 2010 / Accepted: 21 December 2010 / Published: 29 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
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Abstract: A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1). No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC), where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88) than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87). A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.
Keywords: CO2 enrichment; total phenolics and flavonoids; carbon:nitrogen ratio; photosynthesis nitrogen use efficiency; total soluble sugar and starch profiling; Kacip Fatimah; medicinal herb CO2 enrichment; total phenolics and flavonoids; carbon:nitrogen ratio; photosynthesis nitrogen use efficiency; total soluble sugar and starch profiling; Kacip Fatimah; medicinal herb
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ibrahim, M.H.; Jaafar, H.Z.; Rahmat, A.; Rahman, Z.A. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization. Molecules 2011, 16, 162-174.

AMA Style

Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A, Rahman ZA. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization. Molecules. 2011; 16(1):162-174.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul. 2011. "The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization." Molecules 16, no. 1: 162-174.



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