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Molecules 2010, 15(9), 6411-6422; doi:10.3390/molecules15096411

Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oils of Two Valerianaceous Species from China: Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis

1
College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
3
College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2010 / Revised: 1 September 2010 / Accepted: 9 September 2010 / Published: 14 September 2010
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Abstract

In order to investigate essential oils with biological activity from local wild plants, two valerianaceous species, Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis, were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The essential oils were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of the two plants by hydro-distillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Calarene (25.31%), aristolone (13.35%), α-selinene (7.32%) and β-maaliene (6.70%) were the major compounds of the 23 identified components which accounted for 92.76% of the total oil of N. chinensis. Patchoulol (16.75%), α-pinene (14.81%), and β-humulene (8.19%) were the major compounds among the 20 identified components, which accounted for 88.11% of the total oil of V. officinalis. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as well as their oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils were shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with MIC values that ranged from 62.5 μg/mL to 400 μg/mL, and IC50 values from 36.93 μg/mL to 374.72 μg/mL. The oils were also shown to have moderate antifungal activity to Candida albicans growth as well as inhibition of spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Two essential oils were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and ferrozine-ferrous ions assays, respectively, to show moderate antioxidant activity. Results suggest that the isolated essential oils could be used for future development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.
Keywords: Valerianaceae; Nardostachys chinensis; Valeriana officinalis; essential oil; antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity Valerianaceae; Nardostachys chinensis; Valeriana officinalis; essential oil; antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.; Zhao, J.; Liu, H.; Zhou, L.; Liu, Z.; Wang, J.; Han, J.; Yu, Z.; Yang, F. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oils of Two Valerianaceous Species from China: Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis. Molecules 2010, 15, 6411-6422.

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