Molecules 2010, 15(8), 5509-5524; doi:10.3390/molecules15085509
Article

Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition, and Analgesic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd in Southern Brazil

1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3 and 1,4,* email
Received: 24 June 2010; in revised form: 4 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 10 August 2010
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The seasonal variation of the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd grown in southern Brazil was analyzed by GC-MS, and the analgesic and antimicrobial activities of this oil were assayed. The yield of essential oil ranged from 0.17% to 0.26%, with the maximum amount in winter and the minimum in spring. The results obtained from principal components analysis (PCA) revealed the existence of high chemical variability in the different seasons. The samples were clearly discriminated into three groups: winter, autumn, and spring-summer. Samples collected during winter contained the highest percentages of calyculone (24.70%), abietadiene (13.54%), and viridiflorol (4.20%). In autumn, the major constituents were ledol (8.74%) and cis-muurolol-5-en-4-α-ol (13.78%). Samples collected in spring-summer contained the highest percentages of fenchone (12.67%), 14-hydroxy-9-epi-caryophyllene (24.36%), and α-cadinol (8.33%). Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were predominant in all the samples analyzed. The observed chemovariation might be environmentally determined by a seasonal influence. The essential oil, when given orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg, exhibited good analgesic activity on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, inhibiting the constrictions by 38.94% to 46.13%, and this effect was not affected by seasonal variation. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against the bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, and Enterobacter cloacae, and the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was assessed by the disc diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained, followed by measurement of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), indicated that S. aureus, B. subtilis, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive microorganisms, showing largest inhibition, and the lowest MIC values varied from 15.6 to 31.2 µg/mL, 7.8 to 15.6 µg/mL, and 31.2 to 62.5 µg/mL, respectively.
Keywords: Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd; seasonal variation; GC-MS; analgesic activity; antimicrobial activities
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [337 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014 19:33 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Gazim, Z.C.; Amorim, A.C.L.; Hovell, A.M.C.; Rezende, C.M.; Nascimento, I.A.; Ferreira, G.A.; Cortez, D.A.G. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition, and Analgesic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd in Southern Brazil. Molecules 2010, 15, 5509-5524.

AMA Style

Gazim ZC, Amorim ACL, Hovell AMC, Rezende CM, Nascimento IA, Ferreira GA, Cortez DAG. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition, and Analgesic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd in Southern Brazil. Molecules. 2010; 15(8):5509-5524.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Amorim, Ana Carolina L.; Hovell, Ana Maria C.; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Nascimento, Izalina Ansilieiro; Ferreira, Gilberto Alves; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia. 2010. "Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition, and Analgesic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd in Southern Brazil." Molecules 15, no. 8: 5509-5524.

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert