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Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition, and Analgesic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd in Southern Brazil
Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia
Universidade Paranaense, Unipar, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil
Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 June 2010; in revised form: 4 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 10 August 2010
Abstract: The seasonal variation of the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd grown in southern Brazil was analyzed by GC-MS, and the analgesic and antimicrobial activities of this oil were assayed. The yield of essential oil ranged from 0.17% to 0.26%, with the maximum amount in winter and the minimum in spring. The results obtained from principal components analysis (PCA) revealed the existence of high chemical variability in the different seasons. The samples were clearly discriminated into three groups: winter, autumn, and spring-summer. Samples collected during winter contained the highest percentages of calyculone (24.70%), abietadiene (13.54%), and viridiflorol (4.20%). In autumn, the major constituents were ledol (8.74%) and cis-muurolol-5-en-4-α-ol (13.78%). Samples collected in spring-summer contained the highest percentages of fenchone (12.67%), 14-hydroxy-9-epi-caryophyllene (24.36%), and α-cadinol (8.33%). Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were predominant in all the samples analyzed. The observed chemovariation might be environmentally determined by a seasonal influence. The essential oil, when given orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg, exhibited good analgesic activity on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, inhibiting the constrictions by 38.94% to 46.13%, and this effect was not affected by seasonal variation. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against the bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, and Enterobacter cloacae, and the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was assessed by the disc diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained, followed by measurement of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), indicated that S. aureus, B. subtilis, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive microorganisms, showing largest inhibition, and the lowest MIC values varied from 15.6 to 31.2 µg/mL, 7.8 to 15.6 µg/mL, and 31.2 to 62.5 µg/mL, respectively.
Keywords: Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd; seasonal variation; GC-MS; analgesic activity; antimicrobial activities
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Gazim, Z.C.; Amorim, A.C.L.; Hovell, A.M.C.; Rezende, C.M.; Nascimento, I.A.; Ferreira, G.A.; Cortez, D.A.G. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition, and Analgesic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd in Southern Brazil. Molecules 2010, 15, 5509-5524.
Gazim ZC, Amorim ACL, Hovell AMC, Rezende CM, Nascimento IA, Ferreira GA, Cortez DAG. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition, and Analgesic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd in Southern Brazil. Molecules. 2010; 15(8):5509-5524.
Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Amorim, Ana Carolina L.; Hovell, Ana Maria C.; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Nascimento, Izalina Ansilieiro; Ferreira, Gilberto Alves; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia. 2010. "Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition, and Analgesic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd in Southern Brazil." Molecules 15, no. 8: 5509-5524.