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Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain
Functional Food Research and Development Centre, Health Science Technological Park, E-18100 Granada, Spain
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2010; in revised form: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 29 November 2010 / Published: 3 December 2010
Abstract: This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE) can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.
Keywords: phenolic compounds; liquid-liquid extraction; solid-phase extraction; supercritical fluid extraction; pressurized liquid extraction; microwave-assisted extraction; ultrasound-assisted extraction
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Garcia-Salas, P.; Morales-Soto, A.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A. Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples. Molecules 2010, 15, 8813-8826.
Garcia-Salas P, Morales-Soto A, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A. Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples. Molecules. 2010; 15(12):8813-8826.
Garcia-Salas, Patricia; Morales-Soto, Aranzazu; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto. 2010. "Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples." Molecules 15, no. 12: 8813-8826.