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Anthraquinones with Antiplasmodial Activity from the Roots of Rennellia elliptica Korth. (Rubiaceae)
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
Centre for Natural Product Research and Drug Discovery (CENAR), Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2010; in revised form: 6 October 2010 / Accepted: 11 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
Abstract: Dichloromethane root extract of Rennellia elliptica Korth. showed strong inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro with an IC50 value of 4.04 µg/mL. A phytochemical study of the dichloromethane root extract has led to the isolation and characterization of a new anthraquinone, 1,2-dimethoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (1), and ten known anthraquinones: 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (2), nordamnacanthal (3), 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (4), damnacanthal (5), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (6), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (7), rubiadin (8), 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (9), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (10) and 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (11). Structural elucidation of all compounds was accomplished by modern spectroscopic methods, notably 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV and HREIMS. The new anthraquinone 1, 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (4) and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (7) possess strong antiplasmodial activity, with IC50 values of 1.10, 0.63 and 0.34 µM, respectively.
Keywords: anthraquinone; Rennellia elliptica; antiplasmodial; Rubiaceae
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Osman, C.P.; Ismail, N.H.; Ahmad, R.; Ahmat, N.; Awang, K.; Jaafar, F.M. Anthraquinones with Antiplasmodial Activity from the Roots of Rennellia elliptica Korth. (Rubiaceae). Molecules 2010, 15, 7218-7226.
Osman CP, Ismail NH, Ahmad R, Ahmat N, Awang K, Jaafar FM. Anthraquinones with Antiplasmodial Activity from the Roots of Rennellia elliptica Korth. (Rubiaceae). Molecules. 2010; 15(10):7218-7226.
Osman, Che Puteh; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Ahmad, Rohaya; Ahmat, Norizan; Awang, Khalijah; Jaafar, Faridahanim Mohd. 2010. "Anthraquinones with Antiplasmodial Activity from the Roots of Rennellia elliptica Korth. (Rubiaceae)." Molecules 15, no. 10: 7218-7226.