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Molecules 2010, 15(10), 7218-7226; doi:10.3390/molecules15107218
Article

Anthraquinones with Antiplasmodial Activity from the Roots of Rennellia elliptica Korth. (Rubiaceae)

1, 1,* , 1, 1, 2 and 1
1 Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Centre for Natural Product Research and Drug Discovery (CENAR), Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2010 / Revised: 6 October 2010 / Accepted: 11 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Dichloromethane root extract of Rennellia elliptica Korth. showed strong inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro with an IC50 value of 4.04 µg/mL. A phytochemical study of the dichloromethane root extract has led to the isolation and characterization of a new anthraquinone, 1,2-dimethoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (1), and ten known anthraquinones: 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (2), nordamnacanthal (3), 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (4), damnacanthal (5), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (6), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (7), rubiadin (8), 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (9), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (10) and 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (11). Structural elucidation of all compounds was accomplished by modern spectroscopic methods, notably 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV and HREIMS. The new anthraquinone 1, 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (4) and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (7) possess strong antiplasmodial activity, with IC50 values of 1.10, 0.63 and 0.34 µM, respectively.
Keywords: anthraquinone; Rennellia elliptica; antiplasmodial; Rubiaceae anthraquinone; Rennellia elliptica; antiplasmodial; Rubiaceae
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Osman, C.P.; Ismail, N.H.; Ahmad, R.; Ahmat, N.; Awang, K.; Jaafar, F.M. Anthraquinones with Antiplasmodial Activity from the Roots of Rennellia elliptica Korth. (Rubiaceae). Molecules 2010, 15, 7218-7226.

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