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The Beneficial Effect of Vanillic Acid on Ulcerative Colitis
Department of Pharmacology, College of Oriental Medicine, Institute of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-701, Korea
Wonkwang Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2010; in revised form: 8 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Abstract: Vanillic acid, an oxidized form of vanillin, is a benzoic acid derivative used as a flavoring agent. The objective of this study was to determine whether vanillic acid has beneficial effects against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. Our results showed that vanillic acid reduced the severity of the clinical signs of DSS-induced colitis, including weight loss and shortening of colon length, and the disease activity index. The results of this study showed that vanillic acid significantly suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the activation of transcription nuclear factor-kB p65 in DSS-treated colon tissues. In addition, we observed that the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were higher in the DSS-treated group than in the control group, but these increased levels were reduced by the administration of vanillic acid. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillic acid has a beneficial effect on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, thereby indicating its usefulness in the regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation.
Keywords: vanillic acid; dextran sulfate sodium; ulcerative colitis; cyclooxygenase-2; nuclear factor-κB p65; interleukin-6
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kim, S.-J.; Kim, M.-C.; Um, J.-Y.; Hong, S.-H. The Beneficial Effect of Vanillic Acid on Ulcerative Colitis. Molecules 2010, 15, 7208-7217.
Kim S-J, Kim M-C, Um J-Y, Hong S-H. The Beneficial Effect of Vanillic Acid on Ulcerative Colitis. Molecules. 2010; 15(10):7208-7217.
Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Min-Cheol; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon. 2010. "The Beneficial Effect of Vanillic Acid on Ulcerative Colitis." Molecules 15, no. 10: 7208-7217.