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Steroidal Lactones from Withania somnifera, an Ancient Plant for Novel Medicine
Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran, Iran
Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Av. Doctor Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Laboratori de Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultat de Farmacia. Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2009; in revised form: 23 June 2009 / Accepted: 2 July 2009 / Published: 3 July 2009
Abstract: Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. In view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable modern scientific attention. The major chemical constituents of the Withania genus, the withanolides, are a group of naturally occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids built on an intact or rearranged ergostane framework, in which C-22 and C-26 are appropriately oxidized to form a six-membered lactone ring. In recent years, numerous pharmacological investigations have been carried out into the components of W. somnifera extracts. We present here an overview of the chemical structures of triterpenoid components and their biological activity, focusing on two novel activities, tumor inhibition and antiangiogenic properties of withaferin A and the effects of withanolide A on Alzheimer's disease. The most recent attempts in biotechnological production of withanolides are also discussed.
Keywords: Withania somnifera; withanolides; withaferin A; withanolide A; triterpenoids
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Mirjalili, M.H.; Moyano, E.; Bonfill, M.; Cusido, R.M.; Palazón, J. Steroidal Lactones from Withania somnifera, an Ancient Plant for Novel Medicine. Molecules 2009, 14, 2373-2393.
Mirjalili MH, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Cusido RM, Palazón J. Steroidal Lactones from Withania somnifera, an Ancient Plant for Novel Medicine. Molecules. 2009; 14(7):2373-2393.
Mirjalili, Mohammad H.; Moyano, Elisabeth; Bonfill, Mercedes; Cusido, Rosa M.; Palazón, Javier. 2009. "Steroidal Lactones from Withania somnifera, an Ancient Plant for Novel Medicine." Molecules 14, no. 7: 2373-2393.