Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Molecules 2009, 14(1), 200-209; doi:10.3390/molecules14010200
Article

Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market

,
 and *
Received: 14 October 2008; in revised form: 3 December 2008 / Accepted: 8 December 2008 / Published: 5 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
Download PDF [110 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]
Abstract: Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93) between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.
Keywords: Chocolates; Catechin; Epicatechin; Theobromine Chocolates; Catechin; Epicatechin; Theobromine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Meng, C.C.; Jalil, A.M.M.; Ismail, A. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market. Molecules 2009, 14, 200-209.

AMA Style

Meng CC, Jalil AMM, Ismail A. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market. Molecules. 2009; 14(1):200-209.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meng, Cheng Chia; Jalil, Abbe M.M.; Ismail, Amin. 2009. "Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market." Molecules 14, no. 1: 200-209.


Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert