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Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health?
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2008; in revised form: 29 August 2008 / Accepted: 2 September 2008 / Published: 16 September 2008
Abstract: Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates) may present varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years, at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the best polyphenol contents and antioxidant effects. Moreover, the presence of methylxanthines, peptides, and minerals could synergistically enhance or reduce antioxidant properties of cocoa and cocoa products. To a greater extent, cocoa beans from different countries of origins and the methods of preparation (primary and secondary) could also partially influence the antioxidant polyphenols of cocoa products. Hence, comprehensive studies on the aforementioned factors could provide the understanding of health-promoting activities of cocoa or cocoa products components.
Keywords: Cocoa; polyphenols; antioxidants; methylxanthines
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MDPI and ACS Style
Jalil, A.M.M.; Ismail, A. Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health? Molecules 2008, 13, 2190-2219.
Jalil AMM, Ismail A. Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health? Molecules. 2008; 13(9):2190-2219.
Jalil, Abbe M.M.; Ismail, Amin. 2008. "Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health?" Molecules 13, no. 9: 2190-2219.