Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Molecules 2008, 13(6), 1282-1302; doi:10.3390/molecules13061282
Review

Stable Spirocyclic Meisenheimer Complexes

1,* , 2 and 2,*
Received: 15 May 2008; in revised form: 6 June 2008 / Accepted: 6 June 2008 / Published: 9 June 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spiro Compounds)
Download PDF [168 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]
Abstract: Meisenheimer complexes are important intermediates in Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions (SNAr). They are formed by the addition of electron rich species to polynitro aromatic compounds or aromatic compounds with strong electron withdrawing groups. It is possible to distinguish two types of Meisenheimer or σ-complexes, the σHcomplex or σX-complex (also named ipso), depending on the aromatic ring position attacked by the nucleophile (a non-substituted or substituted one, respectively). Special examples of σX- or ipso-complexes are formed through intermediate spiro adducts, via intramolecular SNAr. Some of these spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes, a type of σXcomplex, are exceptionally stable in solution and/or as solids. They can be isolated and characterized using X-ray, and various spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, UV-Vis, IR, and fluorescence. A few of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes are zwitterionic and exhibit interesting photophysical and redox properties. We will review recent advances, synthesis and potential applications of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes.
Keywords: Spirocyclic-; Zwitterionic-; Meisenheimer- Complexes; Fluorescent Compounts Spirocyclic-; Zwitterionic-; Meisenheimer- Complexes; Fluorescent Compounts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Kaysi, R.O.; Gallardo, I.; Guirado, G. Stable Spirocyclic Meisenheimer Complexes. Molecules 2008, 13, 1282-1302.

AMA Style

Al-Kaysi RO, Gallardo I, Guirado G. Stable Spirocyclic Meisenheimer Complexes. Molecules. 2008; 13(6):1282-1302.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Kaysi, Rabih O.; Gallardo, Iluminada; Guirado, Gonzalo. 2008. "Stable Spirocyclic Meisenheimer Complexes." Molecules 13, no. 6: 1282-1302.



Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert