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Molecules 2008, 13(12), 3107-3116; doi:10.3390/molecules13123107

The Effect of Monoterpenes on Swarming Differentiation and Haemolysin Activity in Proteus mirabilis

1,* , 1,2
1, 1, 1 and 1
1 Research Laboratory of Microbiology, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas, 1130, Caxias do Sul, Brazil 95070-560 2 Division of Infectious Diseases. General Hospital of Caxias do Sul, University of Caxias do Sul, Av. Prof Antonio Vignolli, 255, Caxias do Sul, Brazil95070-560
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2008 / Revised: 19 November 2008 / Accepted: 27 November 2008 / Published: 15 December 2008
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Urinary tract infection by Proteus mirabilis depends on several virulence properties that are coordinately regulated with swarming differentiation. Here we report the antibacterial and anti-swarming effect of seventeen terpenoids, and the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of five selected terpenoids on swarming, biofilm formation and haemolysin activity. The results showed that all the terpenes evaluated, particularly oxygenated terpenoids, inhibited P. mirabilis with MIC values ranging between 3 and 10 mg/L. Moreover, citral, citronellol and geraniol effectively inhibit P. mirabilis swarming in a dose dependent manner, reducing swimming/swarming cell differentiation and haemolysin activity at 1/10 MIC concentration. The inhibition of P. mirabilis swarming and virulence factor expression by selected oxygenated terpenoids suggest that essential oils with high concentration of these compounds have the potential to be developed as products for preventing P. mirabilis infections.
Keywords: Terpenoids; Cell differentiation; Proteus mirabilis; MIC Terpenoids; Cell differentiation; Proteus mirabilis; MIC
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Echeverrigaray, S.; Michelim, L.; Longaray Delamare, A.P.; Andrade, C.P.; Pinto da Costa, S.O.; Zacaria, J. The Effect of Monoterpenes on Swarming Differentiation and Haemolysin Activity in Proteus mirabilis. Molecules 2008, 13, 3107-3116.

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