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Molecules 2007, 12(3), 455-483; doi:10.3390/12030455

Occurrence, Biological Activities and Synthesis of Kaurane Diterpenes and their Glycosides

Departamento de Química Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte – MG, Brazil
Departamento de Estudos Básicos e Instrumentais, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, BR 415, Km 03, s/nº, 45.700-000 Itapetinga – BA, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 February 2007 / Revised: 12 March 2007 / Accepted: 12 March 2007 / Published: 13 March 2007


This paper presents a review on kaurane diterpenes and their glycoside derivatives, covering aspects of their occurrence, biological activities and the synthesis of these natural products and their analogues. First, it shows and classifies diterpenes, in accordance with the already established structural criteria in the literature. Then, kauranediterpenes are presented, focusing on their chemical structures, occurrence in the plant kingdom and their main, recently described, biological activities. Moreover, the most significant works, published between 1964 and November 2006, which describe the total synthesis or structural transformations of some kaurane diterpenes, including either semisynthetic and/or microbiologicalmethodologies, are consisely reviewed. At this point, some general considerations on glycosides are introduced, and kaurane glycosides are presented and discussed on the basis of their toxic importance and occurrence in the plant kingdom, having focused on related aspects of their biological activities and the relationships between these activities and the structural factors of their molecules. Finally, the principal methods of glycosidation byenzymatic and chemical processes are both presented, and a few papers on the synthesis of kaurane glycosides are succinctly discussed.
Keywords: Kaurane diterpenes; synthesis; kaurane glycosides; biological activities Kaurane diterpenes; synthesis; kaurane glycosides; biological activities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia, P.A.; De Oliveira, A.B.; Batista, R. Occurrence, Biological Activities and Synthesis of Kaurane Diterpenes and their Glycosides. Molecules 2007, 12, 455-483.

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