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Entropy 2017, 19(2), 78; doi:10.3390/e19020078

Admitting Spontaneous Violations of the Second Law in Continuum Thermomechanics

Department of Mechanical Science & Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801-3620, USA
Academic Editor: Daniel P. Sheehan
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Limits to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Experiment and Theory)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [254 KB, uploaded 22 February 2017]

Abstract

We survey new extensions of continuum mechanics incorporating spontaneous violations of the Second Law (SL), which involve the viscous flow and heat conduction. First, following an account of the Fluctuation Theorem (FT) of statistical mechanics that generalizes the SL, the irreversible entropy is shown to evolve as a submartingale. Next, a stochastic thermomechanics is formulated consistent with the FT, which, according to a revision of classical axioms of continuum mechanics, must be set up on random fields. This development leads to a reformulation of thermoviscous fluids and inelastic solids. These two unconventional constitutive behaviors may jointly occur in nano-poromechanics. View Full-Text
Keywords: continuum mechanics; fluctuation theorem; second law violations continuum mechanics; fluctuation theorem; second law violations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ostoja-Starzewski, M. Admitting Spontaneous Violations of the Second Law in Continuum Thermomechanics. Entropy 2017, 19, 78.

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