Next Article in Journal
Towards Operational Definition of Postictal Stage: Spectral Entropy as a Marker of Seizure Ending
Next Article in Special Issue
The Two-Time Interpretation and Macroscopic Time-Reversibility
Previous Article in Journal
Energy Transfer between Colloids via Critical Interactions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Implementing Demons and Ratchets
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2017, 19(2), 78;

Admitting Spontaneous Violations of the Second Law in Continuum Thermomechanics

Department of Mechanical Science & Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801-3620, USA
Academic Editor: Daniel P. Sheehan
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Limits to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Experiment and Theory)
Full-Text   |   PDF [254 KB, uploaded 22 February 2017]


We survey new extensions of continuum mechanics incorporating spontaneous violations of the Second Law (SL), which involve the viscous flow and heat conduction. First, following an account of the Fluctuation Theorem (FT) of statistical mechanics that generalizes the SL, the irreversible entropy is shown to evolve as a submartingale. Next, a stochastic thermomechanics is formulated consistent with the FT, which, according to a revision of classical axioms of continuum mechanics, must be set up on random fields. This development leads to a reformulation of thermoviscous fluids and inelastic solids. These two unconventional constitutive behaviors may jointly occur in nano-poromechanics. View Full-Text
Keywords: continuum mechanics; fluctuation theorem; second law violations continuum mechanics; fluctuation theorem; second law violations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ostoja-Starzewski, M. Admitting Spontaneous Violations of the Second Law in Continuum Thermomechanics. Entropy 2017, 19, 78.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top