Next Article in Journal
Linearized Transfer Entropy for Continuous Second Order Systems
Next Article in Special Issue
Synchronization of a Class of Fractional-Order Chaotic Neural Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Low-Temperature Behaviour of Social and Economic Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
On the Topological Entropy of Some Skew-Product Maps
Entropy 2013, 15(8), 3170-3185; doi:10.3390/e15083260

A Maximum Entropy-Based Chaotic Time-Variant Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Tampering Detection

2,*  and 1
1 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taichung 404, Taiwan 2 Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 41170, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2013 / Revised: 27 July 2013 / Accepted: 29 July 2013 / Published: 5 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Systems)
Download PDF [1932 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


The fragile watermarking technique is used to protect intellectual property rights while also providing security and rigorous protection. In order to protect the copyright of the creators, it can be implanted in some representative text or totem. Because all of the media on the Internet are digital, protection has become a critical issue, and determining how to use digital watermarks to protect digital media is thus the topic of our research. This paper uses the Logistic map with parameter u = 4 to generate chaotic dynamic behavior with the maximum entropy 1. This approach increases the security and rigor of the protection. The main research target of information hiding is determining how to hide confidential data so that the naked eye cannot see the difference. Next, we introduce one method of information hiding. Generally speaking, if the image only goes through Arnold’s cat map and the Logistic map, it seems to lack sufficient security. Therefore, our emphasis is on controlling Arnold’s cat map and the initial value of the chaos system to undergo small changes and generate different chaos sequences. Thus, the current time is used to not only make encryption more stringent but also to enhance the security of the digital media.
Keywords: encrypt; watermark; logistic map; Arnold’s cat map encrypt; watermark; logistic map; Arnold’s cat map
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.-L.; Yau, H.-T.; Yang, G.-J. A Maximum Entropy-Based Chaotic Time-Variant Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Tampering Detection. Entropy 2013, 15, 3170-3185.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert