Entropy 2013, 15(11), 4748-4781; doi:10.3390/e15114748
Review

The New Genetics and Natural versus Artificial Genetic Modification

Received: 2 August 2013; in revised form: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosemiotic Entropy: Disorder, Disease, and Mortality)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The original rationale and impetus for artificial genetic modification was the “central dogma” of molecular biology that assumed DNA carries all the instructions for making an organism, which are transmitted via RNA to protein to biological function in linear causal chains. This is contrary to the reality of the “fluid genome” that has emerged since the mid-1970s. In order to survive, the organism needs to engage in natural genetic modification in real time, an exquisitely precise molecular dance of life with RNA and DNA responding to and participating in “downstream” biological functions. Artificial genetic modification, in contrast, is crude, imprecise, and interferes with the natural process. It drives natural systems towards maximum biosemiotic entropy as the perturbations are propagated and amplified through the complex cascades of interactions between subsystems that are essential for health and longevity.
Keywords: central dogma; fluid genome; circular causation; biosemiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, M.-W. The New Genetics and Natural versus Artificial Genetic Modification. Entropy 2013, 15, 4748-4781.

AMA Style

Ho M-W. The New Genetics and Natural versus Artificial Genetic Modification. Entropy. 2013; 15(11):4748-4781.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ho, Mae-Wan. 2013. "The New Genetics and Natural versus Artificial Genetic Modification." Entropy 15, no. 11: 4748-4781.

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