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Special Issue "Air Pollution in the Asia-Pacific Region"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Shinji Wakamatsu

Ehime Univeristy, Faculty of Agriculture, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ozone; VOC; PM2.5
Guest Editor
Dr. Toshimasa Ohara

National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506 Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: emission; regional air pollution; transboundary air pollution
Guest Editor
Dr. Hiroaki Kondo

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: numerical modeling; urban heat island; urban air pollution
Guest Editor
Dr. Shiro Hatakeyama

Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: aerosol; chemical reaction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries over the past several decades, the problem of air pollution has become aggravated, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. The degradation of air quality has had adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. Moreover, air pollution causes climate change, which in turn influences air quality. Under these circumstances, this Special Issue aims to offer an opportunity to present scientific approaches, related to the Asia-Pacific region, for solving regional and global atmospheric issues, such as road-side and urban air pollution, wet and dry deposition, the long-range transport of photochemical ozone and PM2.5, and climate change.

Dr. Shinji Wakamatsu
Dr. Toshimasa Ohara
Dr. Hiroaki Kondo
Dr. Shiro Hatakeyama
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Asia-Pacific region
  • ozone
  • photochemical ozone
  • VOCs
  • aerosols
  • PM2.5
  • urban meteorology
  • sea and land breezes
  • urban heat island
  • emissions inventory
  • human exposure
  • roadside air pollutionurban air pollution
  • regional air pollution
  • transboundary air pollution
  • long-range transport
  • wet and dry deposition
  • numerical modelling
  • receptor modelling
  • climate change
  • co-beneficial countermeasure scenarios

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Impact of Manufacturing Transfer on SO2 Emissions in Jiangsu Province, China
Atmosphere 2016, 7(5), 69; doi:10.3390/atmos7050069
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The impact of manufacturing transfer in Jiangsu province, China, on the spatial-temporal variations of SO2 emissions is investigated using estimated sector-specific SO2 emissions, and emissions in the different transfer-in and transfer-out regions were quantified during 2000–2011. Our results show that SO
[...] Read more.
The impact of manufacturing transfer in Jiangsu province, China, on the spatial-temporal variations of SO2 emissions is investigated using estimated sector-specific SO2 emissions, and emissions in the different transfer-in and transfer-out regions were quantified during 2000–2011. Our results show that SO2 emissions had undergone three phases: an increase in the period of 2000–2005, a rapid decline in 2005–2008 and a slow decline in 2008–2011. Emissions from the south dominated the total emissions in the province. Cleaner production generally contributed to the reduced emissions, but rather, at the industrial scale. Pollution abatement was occasional and industrial structure was negligible in some years. The three phases also coincided with the three periods of the manufacturing transfer: transferred to the south from outside the province during 2000–2005, to the central from the south within the province during 2005–2008 and to the north from the south or partly from the inner central within the province during 2008–2011. With the manufacturing transfer, SO2 emission magnitudes and distributions were also changed. In the south, −12.36 and −5.62 Mt of SO2 emissions were transferred out during 2005–2008 and 2008–2011, respectively. Forty-three-point-four percent and 56.4% of the SO2 emissions in the south were transferred to the central and north during 2005–2008, respectively. The north region received 77.7% and 22.1% of SO2 emissions from the south and the central region during 2008–2011, respectively. The paper reveals that structure adjustments should be executed in a timely manner in the manufacturing transfer-in process so that the transfer-in regions can benefit from the economic boom without bearing a deteriorated environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution in the Asia-Pacific Region)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Atmospheric Glyoxal Column Densities Retrieved from MAX-DOAS Observations in Pakistan and during MAD-CAT Field Campaign in Mainz, Germany
Atmosphere 2016, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/atmos7050068
Received: 14 February 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photolysis of glyoxal (CHOCHO) and other volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of NOx results in tropospheric ozone and secondary organic pollutants formation. Glyoxal, with a relatively short lifetime, plays an important role in VOC formation in the planetary boundary layer. This
[...] Read more.
Photolysis of glyoxal (CHOCHO) and other volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of NOx results in tropospheric ozone and secondary organic pollutants formation. Glyoxal, with a relatively short lifetime, plays an important role in VOC formation in the planetary boundary layer. This study presents a comparative analysis of CHOCHO retrieval from mini MAX-DOAS observations at two different monitoring sites in Germany and Pakistan. Firstly, CHOCHO differential slant column densities (DSCDs) were retrieved by using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique during a field campaign called MAD-CAT (Multi Axis DOAS-Comparison Campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases) from 18 June to 17 July 2013 in Mainz, Germany (49.965387°N, 8.242531°E). A second dataset was acquired from 18 June to 17 July 2015 at ground-based measurements taken with mini MAX-DOAS at IESE (Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering), NUST (National University of Sciences and Technology) Islamabad (33.6416°N, 72.9835°E), Pakistan. Tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of CHOCHO were derived from measured DSCDs by using geometric air mass factor approach. Results show that CHOCHO emissions from biogenic sources are largely driven by actinic flux. Covariance of ambient temperature and relative humidity was also investigated at both sites. Significant correlation between actinic flux and CHOCHO VCDs (r > 0.8) along with similar diurnal variation was observed at both monitoring sites. Quantitative difference observed in CHOCHO VCDs is primarily triggered by the difference in actinic flux and vegetation profiles of both monitoring sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution in the Asia-Pacific Region)
Open AccessArticle Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods
Atmosphere 2016, 7(5), 67; doi:10.3390/atmos7050067
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 22 April 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding
[...] Read more.
Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM) concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD) and AERONET Station (AOD) data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol layers, instead of clouds for the vertical profiles of selected case studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution in the Asia-Pacific Region)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Prediction of a Visible Plume from a Dry and Wet Combined Cooling Tower and Its Mechanism of Abatement
Atmosphere 2016, 7(4), 59; doi:10.3390/atmos7040059
Received: 10 February 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
PDF Full-text (10500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Heated moist air from a cooling tower forms a visible plume and needs to be predicted, not only for the performance design of the cooling tower, but also for environmental impact assessments. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics analysis is conducted to
[...] Read more.
Heated moist air from a cooling tower forms a visible plume and needs to be predicted, not only for the performance design of the cooling tower, but also for environmental impact assessments. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics analysis is conducted to predict the scale of a visible plume rising from a cross flow cooling tower with mechanical draft (provided by a rotating fan). The results of computational fluid dynamics analysis are verified by comparing predictions with an actual observed plume. The results show that the predicted visible plume represents the observed plume in an error range of 15%–20%, which is permissible for designing a cooling tower. Additionally, the mixing condition of heated dry air and moist air under dry and wet combined operation is examined, and the condition is thought to affect the scale of the visible plume. It is found that, in the case of a mechanical-draft cooling tower, the fan has a mixing function which performs the complete mixing of wet and dry air, and this suggests that the generation of the plume can be determined by the intersection of the operation line and saturation line. Additionally, the effect of external wind on the scale of the visible plume is large, especially for dry and wet combined operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution in the Asia-Pacific Region)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Trans-Boundary Air Pollution on the Urban Atmosphere in Fukuoka, Japan
Atmosphere 2016, 7(4), 51; doi:10.3390/atmos7040051
Received: 9 February 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 24 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To understand the influence of trans-boundary air pollution on the air quality of Fukuoka, the mass concentration and chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM) were observed at urban (Fukuoka) and rural (Fukue Island) sites in the northern Kyushu area in Japan. Chemical
[...] Read more.
To understand the influence of trans-boundary air pollution on the air quality of Fukuoka, the mass concentration and chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM) were observed at urban (Fukuoka) and rural (Fukue Island) sites in the northern Kyushu area in Japan. Chemical composition was measured using an aerosol mass spectrometer. Organic aerosol (OA) data were analyzed by the positive matrix factorization (PMF) method. Sulfate and low-volatile oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) were dominant for all of the PM2.5 mass variations on Fukue Island, where the trans-boundary air pollution is dominant in the winter-spring season. In Fukuoka, however, sulfate accounted for the largest fraction of total chemical species under high PM2.5 mass concentrations (>35 µg·m−3), while organics and nitrate made up a large fraction under low PM2.5 (<10 µg·m−3). Under the high PM2.5 condition, LV-OOA was also dominant. This indicates that high PM2.5 mass concentrations were attributed to the long-range transport of air pollution. Although the trans-boundary air pollution prevails in the winter-spring season, high sulfate concentrations were observed in the summer of 2012. In addition to the volcanic activities and photochemical reactions, long-range, trans-boundary air pollutions are influential factors not only in winter-spring but also in summer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution in the Asia-Pacific Region)
Open AccessArticle Factors Controlling the Variation of Aerosol Surface Area Concentrations Measured by a Diffusion Charger in Fukuoka, Japan
Atmosphere 2016, 7(3), 33; doi:10.3390/atmos7030033
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The surface area of ambient aerosols can be considered as an index of toxicity because an increased surface area may be able to act as a catalyst for specific reactions between particles and cells, as well as a carrier for co-pollutants, such as
[...] Read more.
The surface area of ambient aerosols can be considered as an index of toxicity because an increased surface area may be able to act as a catalyst for specific reactions between particles and cells, as well as a carrier for co-pollutants, such as gases and chemicals. The aerosol surface area concentration was measured together with black carbon (BC) and other chemical species such as organic compounds, sulfate, and nitrate in Fukuoka, Japan, and the effect of the chemical composition of aerosols on their surface area was investigated. Aerosol surface area concentration was highly correlated with BC concentration for the entire period. Day-of-week variation and diurnal variation also showed the strong correlation between aerosol surface area and BC. This implies that even though BC accounts for relatively small percentage (in this study, 3.5%) of PM2.5 mass, it should receive considerable attention when aerosol surface area is considered as an index of adverse health effects caused by exposure of the human body to aerosols. Sulfate aerosol does not usually affect aerosol surface area in Fukuoka, but it may occasionally have a significant effect when the airmass contains an excess amount of relatively smaller particles of sulfate derived from volcanic SO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution in the Asia-Pacific Region)
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