Manuscript English Editing

All papers accepted for publication in an MDPI journal undergo English editing before publication. In exceptional cases, we may also perform English editing before a final decision is made, an may charge an additional fee (see the APC page for details). English editing by MDPI does not guarantee that the paper will be accepted for publication: the final decision is the sole responsibility of the academic editor. We recommend that in most cases authors wait until after a final decision before requesting English editing from MDPI.

We encourage non-native English speaking authors to send their manuscripts to a professional English editing service prior to submission. If you use a service that provides a confirmation certificate, please send a copy to the Editorial Office. Authors from developing countries should consider registration with AuthorAid, a global research community that provides networking, mentoring, resources and training for researchers in developing countries.

Guidelines for Authors

The following are English language guidelines for the submission to one of the MDPI journals. This list is not comprehensive, but covers common cases. Any comments or questions can be addressed to
  • Both UK and American English are accepted; the latter is preferred and manuscripts should use only one style.
  • Capitalize all words in headings including hyphenated words (e.g. Anti-Antagonist), except conjunctions (and, or, but, nor, yet, so, for), articles (a, an, the), and all prepositions (including those of five letters or more) (in, to, of, at, by, up, for, off, on, against, between among, under). First and last words in the title are always capitalized.
  • Define abbreviations the first time they are mentioned in the abstract or text; also the first time they are mentioned in a Table/Figure heading.
  • Keywords are not capitalized.
  • The following words need to be italicized: i.e., versus (vs.), et al., in vitro, in vivo, vice versa, etc., circa (ca.), ex vivo, in situ, ad hoc, post hoc, N.B., ab initio, de novo, de facto, in vacuo, viz., vide infra, vide supra, in vacuo, per se, vis-à-vis, in silico, a posteriori. Note, however, that if one of these words appears in an italicized subheading it should then NOT be italicized so as to stand out.
  • The following words are not italicized: e.g., via, per capita.
  • All websites need to be referenced as does unpublished data or personal communications.
  • Use the em dash (symbol 2014) instead of commas in a sentence when explaining something, for example: ...from known processes—QED, the weak interaction, and hadronic vacuum polarization—are believed to be understood at the sub-ppm level.
  • Use the en dash (2013) between numbers and words replacing “to”, for example 4–6 mL; superconductor–normal metal interface; east–west transects; also in composite names, e.g. Wigner–Seitz cells.
  • Capitalize words such as Group, Section, Method, etc. if followed by a number, e.g. “In Group 4, 20 patients…”
  • The ‘th’ in 19th or 20th does NOT need to be written in superscript.
  • To maintain a tidy layout, please keep two words on the last line of a paragraph; keep equations together rather than having 3 + 2 = 5 split with half on one line and half on the next; similarly move hyphenated words on to the next line using a soft carriage return rather than ctrl + shift + - as this creates an en dash.
  • Dates are written in the American manner, April 20, 2004 rather than 20th or 20.4.04
  • Write 1990s rather than with an apostrophe or just 90s.
  • There is no space after > or < unless it is between two figures, i.e. 7 < 10.
  • IC50: 50 always in subscript, also EC50, LC50, LD50, TC50
  • The measurement mL : the L is always a capital.
  • For consistency, in table/figure headings put brackets round (A) (B) and make A and B bold. Please do not leave (A) at the end of a line, use ctrl+shift+space to keep it connected to the following word.
  • Write don't, can't... in full, i.e. do not, cannot
  • Numbers 1 to 9 are written in full, except if part of a measurement (6–8 mL) or in the experimental/materials/methods section
  • Numbers at the beginning of a sentence should be written in full, i.e. 152 mL must be written as: One hundred and fifty two milliliters.
  • A sentence should not start with But or And (use however or find alternatives).
  • If a reference is written at the beginning of a sentence, e.g. “[12] studied…”, insert the author’s name before the reference number, e.g. “Smith [12] studied”
  • There is a space after a number and before °C and units such as μL, h, min, days, but NOT before % or ° (angle).