Manuscript English Editing
All papers accepted for publication in an MDPI journal undergo English editing before publication. In exceptional cases, we may also perform English editing before a final decision is made (for details, see the English editing service), and may charge an additional fee (see the APC page for details). English editing by MDPI does not guarantee that the paper will be accepted for publication: the final decision is the sole responsibility of the academic editor. We recommend that in most cases authors wait until after a final decision before requesting English editing from MDPI.
We encourage non-native English speaking authors to send their manuscripts to a professional English editing service prior to submission. If you use a service that provides a confirmation certificate, please send a copy to the Editorial Office. Authors from developing countries should consider registration with AuthorAid, a global research community that provides networking, mentoring, resources and training for researchers in developing countries.
Guidelines for AuthorsThe following are English language guidelines for submissions to MDPI journals:
- American English or UK English are fine so long as there is consistency.
- Please capitalize all words in headings including hyphenated words (e.g. Anti-Antagonist), except conjunctions (and, or, but, nor, yet, so, for), articles (a, an, the), and all prepositions (including those of five letters or more) (in, to, of, at, by, up, for, off, on, against, between, among, under). First and last words in the title are always capitalized. Check using http://titlecapitalization.com/ (third option).
- Define abbreviations the first time they are mentioned in the abstract, text; also the first time they are mentioned in a table or figure.
- Keywords are not capitalized.
- All websites need to be referenced as does unpublished data or personal communications.
- Use the em dash (symbol 2014) instead of commas in a sentence when explaining something, for example: ...from known processes—QED, the weak interaction, and hadronic vacuum polarization—are believed to be understood at the sub-ppm level.
- Use the en dash (2013) between numbers and words replacing "to", for example 4–6 mL; superconductor–normal metal interface; east–west transects; also in composite names, e.g. Wigner–Seitz cells.
- Capitalize words such as Group, Section, Method, etc. if followed by a number, e.g. "In Group 4, five patients..."
- The 'th' in 19th or 20th should NOT be written in superscript.
- Dates are written out in the full, April 20, 2004 (or 20 April, 2004) rather than 20.4.04
- Write 1990s rather than with an apostrophe (1990’s) or just 90s.
- There is no space after > or < unless it is between two figures, i.e. 7 < 10.
- IC50: 50 always in subscript, also EC50, LC50, LD50, TC50
- The measurement mL: the L is always a capital.
- For consistency, in table/figure headings put brackets round (A) (B) and make A and B bold.
- Write don't, can't... in full, i.e. do not, cannot
- Numbers 1 to 9 are written in full, except if part of a measurement (6–8 mL) or in the experimental/materials/methods section.
- Numbers at the beginning of a sentence should be written in full, i.e. 152 mL must be written as: One hundred and fifty two milliliters.
- A sentence should not start with But or And (use however or find alternatives).
- If a reference is written at the beginning of a sentence, e.g. " studied...", insert the author's name before the reference number, e.g. "Smith  studied" or write “The authors of  studied