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Gastrointest. Disord., Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Acute Effects of Carbonated Beverage Consumption on Symptoms and Objective Markers of Gastric Reflux
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 30-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010004
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that carbonated beverages may cause gastro-oesophageal reflux. Pepsin (the major enzyme secreted by the stomach) has been suggested to be an objective, acute marker of a reflux event. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether intake of carbonated beverages
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Previous studies have suggested that carbonated beverages may cause gastro-oesophageal reflux. Pepsin (the major enzyme secreted by the stomach) has been suggested to be an objective, acute marker of a reflux event. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether intake of carbonated beverages could affect pepsin concentration in saliva or reflux symptoms. This was assessed by a randomised, crossover trial where participants consumed 330 mL of beverage (carbonated cola, degassed cola or water) at separate visits. Saliva samples and symptom questionnaires were collected at baseline and over the 30 min postprandial period. Pepsin was detected in all saliva samples. No difference was found in the salivary pepsin concentrations between treatments at all time points. There were significantly higher scores (p > 0.05) for feelings of fullness, heartburn, urge to belch and frequency of belches after ingestion of carbonated cola than degassed cola and water. The ingestion of carbonated beverages did not appear to increase postprandial pepsin concentration in saliva compared to other beverages but did evoke higher levels of reflux-related symptoms such as fullness, heartburn and belching. This suggests carbonated beverages may cause symptoms associated with reflux but do not drive detectable levels of gastric juice to reach the oral cavity. Full article
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Open AccessReview CCR6–CCL20-Mediated Immunologic Pathways in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 15-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010003
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 19 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has evoked significant interest in human immunobiology given its tactical immune evasion methodologies resulting in acute immune destabilization. IBD comprising Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis manifests as chronic inflammation in the gut mucosa, leading to complexities involving immune dysregulation
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has evoked significant interest in human immunobiology given its tactical immune evasion methodologies resulting in acute immune destabilization. IBD comprising Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis manifests as chronic inflammation in the gut mucosa, leading to complexities involving immune dysregulation in the T helper lymphocyte arm, effecting disease pathogenicity. The mucosa of the alimentary canal is constantly exposed to a myriad of food antigens and luminal microorganisms for which a consistent host-protective mechanism is operative in healthy people. Lowered mucosal immune expression which allows penetration of the epithelial barrier by infective pathogenic microbes elicits both innate and adaptive immune responses in the gut, culminating in aberrant intestinal inflammation. Interestingly, the IBD leukocyte repertoire is significantly entwined with chemokine-assisted chemotactic navigation into the sites of inflammation, which is also thought to generate favorable immune-suppressive responses. The functions of the cognate chemokine receptor, CCR6, which binds with its unique ligand CCL20, are expected to tilt the balance between upregulation of homeostatic tolerance and inflammatory pathophysiology. This review aims to critically examine the CCR6-driven immune pathways: TH1/TH2, TH1/TH17, TH17/Treg, IL-23/IL-17, Akt/ERK-1/2, ILC3, and TH9/TH2 for systematic investigation of its underlying mechanisms in the future and to underpin its importance in resolving IBD pathology. Thus, CCR6 occupies an exclusive position in gut immunology which renders it an invaluable therapeutic tool for the production of novel medicaments to treat IBD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intrabolus Pressure Has Better Correlation Than Eosinophilia with Dysphagia Severity in Fibrostenotic Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Pilot Study
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 3-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010002
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by dysphagia with esophageal eosinophilia. We sought to determine if intrabolus pressure measurements on high-resolution manometry had any correlation with dysphagia improvement following standard therapy for patients with fibrostenotic eosinophilic esophagitis. Consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled at our swallowing
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Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by dysphagia with esophageal eosinophilia. We sought to determine if intrabolus pressure measurements on high-resolution manometry had any correlation with dysphagia improvement following standard therapy for patients with fibrostenotic eosinophilic esophagitis. Consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled at our swallowing center. Dysphagia scores, esophageal eosinophil counts, endoscopic reference scores, and intrabolus pressure measurements were compared at baseline and following therapy with 8 weeks of a proton-pump inhibitor and serial bougie dilation to a luminal diameter of 17 mm. Five patients were included in the study. The median age was 38 years. The average endoscopic reference score improved from 5.0 to 2.4 (p = 0.007). The mean esophageal diameter improved from 10.8 mm to 17.2 mm (p = 0.001). Dysphagia severity scores improved from a mean value of 34.2 to 10.8 (p = 0.004). Mucosal eosinophilia had no correlation with dysphagia severity. Mean intrabolus pressure improved from 21.8 mmHg to 11 mmHg (p = 0.001). There was strong correlation between a decrease in intrabolus pressure and improvement in dysphagia severity; however, this was not significant (p = 0.108). Intrabolus pressure has strong correlation with dysphagia severity following therapy for fibrostenotic eosinophilic esophagitis. Bougie dilation provides improvement in dysphagia despite persistent mucosal eosinophilia. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Gastrointestinal Disorders—An Open Access Journal on Gastroenterology
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010001
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
I am very excited about announcing the launch of a new Journal—Gastrointestinal Disorders.[...] Full article
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