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Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 63-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010007

To Be or Not to Be: Environmental Factors that Drive Myelin Formation during Development and after CNS Trauma

1,2,†
,
1,2,†
and
2,3,*
1
Neuroscience Graduate Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2
Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
3
Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract

Oligodendrocytes are specialized glial cells that myelinate central nervous system (CNS) axons. Historically, it was believed that the primary role of myelin was to compactly ensheath axons, providing the insulation necessary for rapid signal conduction. However, mounting evidence demonstrates the dynamic importance of myelin and oligodendrocytes, including providing metabolic support to neurons and regulating axon protein distribution. As such, the development and maintenance of oligodendrocytes and myelin are integral to preserving CNS homeostasis and supporting proper functioning of widespread neural networks. Environmental signals are critical for proper oligodendrocyte lineage cell progression and their capacity to form functional compact myelin; these signals are markedly disturbed by injury to the CNS, which may compromise endogenous myelin repair capabilities. This review outlines some key environmental factors that drive myelin formation during development and compares that to the primary factors that define a CNS injury milieu. We aim to identify developmental factors disrupted after CNS trauma as well as pathogenic factors that negatively impact oligodendrocyte lineage cells, as these are potential therapeutic targets to promote myelin repair after injury or disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: development; spinal cord injury; myelination; growth factor; cytokine; oligodendrocyte progenitor cells development; spinal cord injury; myelination; growth factor; cytokine; oligodendrocyte progenitor cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Pukos, N.; Yoseph, R.; M. McTigue, D. To Be or Not to Be: Environmental Factors that Drive Myelin Formation during Development and after CNS Trauma. Neuroglia 2018, 1, 63-90.

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