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J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jmmp1010002

Three Hundred and Sixty Degree Real-Time Monitoring of 3-D Printing Using Computer Analysis of Two Camera Views

1
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
2
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017

Abstract

Prosumer (producing consumer)-based desktop additive manufacturing has been enabled by the recent radical reduction in 3-D printer capital costs created by the open-source release of the self-replicating rapid prototype (RepRap). To continue this success, there have been some efforts to improve reliability, which are either too expensive or lacked automation. A promising method to improve reliability is to use computer vision, although the success rates are still too low for widespread use. To overcome these challenges an open source low-cost reliable real-time optimal monitoring platform for 3-D printing from double cameras is presented here. This error detection system is implemented with low-cost web cameras and covers 360 degrees around the printed object from three different perspectives. The algorithm is developed in Python and run on a Raspberry Pi3 mini-computer to reduce costs. For 3-D printing monitoring in three different perspectives, the systems are tested with four different 3-D object geometries for normal operation and failure modes. This system is tested with two different techniques in the image pre-processing step: SIFT and RANSAC rescale and rectification, and non-rescale and rectification. The error calculations were determined from the horizontal and vertical magnitude methods of 3-D reconstruction images. The non-rescale and rectification technique successfully detects the normal printing and failure state for all models with 100% accuracy, which is better than the single camera set up only. The computation time of the non-rescale and rectification technique is two times faster than the SIFT and RANSAC rescale and rectification technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: real time monitoring; 2-D reconstruction; error detection; reliability; 3-D printing; computer analysis real time monitoring; 2-D reconstruction; error detection; reliability; 3-D printing; computer analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nuchitprasitchai, S.; Roggemann, M.C.; Pearce, J.M. Three Hundred and Sixty Degree Real-Time Monitoring of 3-D Printing Using Computer Analysis of Two Camera Views. J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2017, 1, 2.

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J. Manuf. Mater. Process. EISSN 2504-4494 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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