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Proceedings 2018, 2(6), 201; doi:10.3390/proceedings2060201

Kinematic Differences between Set- and Jump-Shot Motions in Basketball

Department of Advanced Robotics, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 2750016, Japan
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Presented at the 12th conference of the International Sports Engineering Association, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 26–28 March 2018.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Published: 14 February 2018
Download PDF [646 KB, uploaded 14 February 2018]


Shooting arm motions at release in one-hand set and jump basketball shots have been analyzed using a kinematic model. Set and jump shots are classified by the vertical velocity and acceleration of the shooter’s shooting-side shoulder at release. The two-dimensional three-segment model includes the vertical shooting-side shoulder velocity and acceleration. Numerical simulation investigates the effect of shoulder motion. Release backspin angular velocity can be described as a function of the vertical shoulder acceleration and the vertical fingertip acceleration relative to the shoulder. For proper backspin, jump shots require large vertical fingertip acceleration relative to the shoulder. The upward shoulder speed at release contributes to the vertical fingertip velocity relative to the shoulder for a given desired ball release speed, angle and backspin. On the other hand, upward shoulder motion does not contribute to the horizontal direction. As horizontal shot distance increases, upper arm angular speed also increases to produce the ball release conditions. Ball release with upward shoulder speed reduces the magnitudes of the upper arm, forearm and hand angular velocities. All these facts imply that the shooting arm motion in the jump shot is different from that of the set shot.
Keywords: basketball; kinematics; shooting arm motion; set shots; jump shots; upward shoulder motion basketball; kinematics; shooting arm motion; set shots; jump shots; upward shoulder motion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Okubo, H.; Hubbard, M. Kinematic Differences between Set- and Jump-Shot Motions in Basketball. Proceedings 2018, 2, 201.

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