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Vision, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Electrophysiological Studies on The Dynamics of Luminance Adaptation in the Mouse Retina
Vision 2017, 1(4), 23; doi:10.3390/vision1040023
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
To date, most studies involving in vivo electroretinography in mice are performed on steady state adapted animals. In this study, we focused on the dynamics of adaptation to high and low light levels in the mouse retina. Two flash electroretinogram (ERG) protocols and
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To date, most studies involving in vivo electroretinography in mice are performed on steady state adapted animals. In this study, we focused on the dynamics of adaptation to high and low light levels in the mouse retina. Two flash electroretinogram (ERG) protocols and one flicker ERG protocol were employed. In the two flash ERG protocols, the animals were adapted to either 25 or 40 cd/m2 white light and ERGs were recorded for up to 15 min of adaptation. Afterwards, flash ERGs were recorded for up to 45 min of dark adaptation. Amplitudes of the flash ERG increased during light adaptation, while implicit times of the different wave components decreased. During subsequent dark adaptation, the amplitudes further increased. The increase in a-to-b-wave ratio indicated adaptational processes at the photoreceptor synapse. In the flicker ERG protocol, the responses to 12 Hz sinusoidal luminance modulation during the adaptation to 25 cd/m2 and a 1 cd/m2 mean luminances were recorded. The amplitudes of the first harmonic components in the flicker protocol decreased during light adaptation but increased during dark adaptation. This is at odds with the changes in the flash ERG, indicating that adaptation may be different in different retinal pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Outcomes between Endoscopic and Transcleral Cyclophotocoagulation
Vision 2017, 1(4), 24; doi:10.3390/vision1040024
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
Importance: Traditionally cyclophotocoagulation has been reserved as a treatment of last resort for eyes with advanced stage glaucoma, but increasingly it is offered to eyes with less severe disease. Endoscopic approaches in particular are utilized in increasing numbers of patients despite only
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Importance: Traditionally cyclophotocoagulation has been reserved as a treatment of last resort for eyes with advanced stage glaucoma, but increasingly it is offered to eyes with less severe disease. Endoscopic approaches in particular are utilized in increasing numbers of patients despite only a small number of publications on its results. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic and transcleral cyclophotocoagulation (ECP and TCP) procedures in eyes with refractory glaucomas. Design, Setting, and Participants: A chart review was performed on consecutive patients who underwent ECP and TCP at a tertiary ophthalmology care center between January 2000 and December 2010. Cases with fewer than 3 months of follow-up or that had concurrent pressure reducing procedures were excluded. The main outcome measures examined were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), additional glaucoma procedure required, and complications. Main Outcomes and Measures: Forty-two eyes (42 patients) that underwent ECP and forty-four eyes (44 patients) that underwent TCP were identified. The TCP group had a statistically higher mean age (71.2 ± 16.7 vs. 58.1 ± 22.9 years, respectively), larger proportion of neovascular glaucoma (40.9% vs. 16.7%), worse initial BCVA (logMAR 2.86 vs. 1.81), and higher preoperative IOP (45.3 vs. 26.6 mmHg) than the ECP group. At 12 months follow-up, the mean IOP difference between groups was not statistically significant, although the change in IOP from baseline to 12 months was greater for the TCP group (p = 0.006). The rates of progression to no light perception (NLP) and phthisis bulbi were significantly higher amongst TCP eyes than ECP eyes (27.2% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.017, and 20.5% vs. 0%, p = 0.003, respectively). Of these eyes that progressed, a majority had neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Corneal decompensation was the most frequent complication following ECP (11.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with preoperative BCVA of 20/400 or better, overall complication rates (cystoid macular edema, exudative retinal detachment, inflammation, cornea decompensation) were higher after ECP than with TCP. In refractory glaucomas in a real world setting (not a trial), TCP was more frequently used in ischemic eyes. TCP was associated with a higher rate of progression to phthisis bulbi and loss of light perception than ECP. However, ECP was associated with a clinically significant rate of corneal decompensation. These outcomes likely were related to the severity of underlying ocular diseases found in these eyes. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Stimulus Size and Eccentricity on Attention Shift Latencies
Vision 2017, 1(4), 25; doi:10.3390/vision1040025
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
The ability to shift attention between relevant stimuli is crucial in everyday life and allows us to focus on relevant events. It develops during early childhood and is often impaired in clinical populations, as can be investigated in the fixation shift paradigm and
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The ability to shift attention between relevant stimuli is crucial in everyday life and allows us to focus on relevant events. It develops during early childhood and is often impaired in clinical populations, as can be investigated in the fixation shift paradigm and the gap–overlap paradigm. Different tests use stimuli of different sizes presented at different eccentricities, making it difficult to compare them. This study systematically investigates the effect of eccentricity and target size on refixation latencies towards target stimuli. Eccentricity and target size affected attention shift latencies with greatest latencies to big targets that were presented at a small eccentricity. Slowed responses to large parafoveal targets are in line with the idea that specific areas in the superior colliculus can lead to inhibition of eye movements. Findings suggest that the two different paradigms are generally comparable, as long as the target is scaled in proportion to the eccentricity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reflexive Shifts in Visual Attention)
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Open AccessArticle Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Measurement with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Vision 2017, 1(4), 26; doi:10.3390/vision1040026
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Patients >60 years of age without glaucoma or record of intraocular pressure >21 mmHg and no systemic
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Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Patients >60 years of age without glaucoma or record of intraocular pressure >21 mmHg and no systemic or intraocular diseases or treatment or surgical intervention that affected the RNFL underwent OCT measurement of the RNFL. The severity of AMD was staged with the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging System. The relationship between RNFL measurements and AMD stages of one eye per patient was analyzed. Results: Eighty-six eyes (46 patients) with AMD and no glaucoma or other exclusion criteria received OCT RNFL measurements. Nine eyes (10.5%) were excluded because of distorted peripapillary anatomy from exudative AMD (7 eyes) or failure of the RNFL segmentation algorithm (2 eyes). Mean age ± S.D. of the 43 patients analyzed was 81.2 ± 7.3 years. The mean stage ± S.D. of AMD of the 77 eyes was 3.77 ± 1.05. Higher stages of AMD were statistically significantly associated with lower average RNFL and inferior sector RNFL (p = 0.049, 0 0015, respectively). The association of inferior sector RNFL and AMD stage remained statistically significant after adjusting for age. Conclusions: Spectral domain OCT is generally useful in measuring the peripapillary RNFL in eyes with different stages of AMD. Higher stage of AMD is associated with thinner peripapillary RNFL, which may masquerade as early glaucomatous damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Degeneration)
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Open AccessArticle On the Mechanics of Immediate Corrections and Aftereffects in Prism Adaptation
Vision 2017, 1(4), 27; doi:10.3390/vision1040027
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Prisms laterally shifting the perceived visual world cause arm movements to deviate from intended targets. The resulting error—the direct effect—both for pointing and throwing movements, usually corresponds to only around half of the prism’s optical power due to an “immediate correction effect”. We
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Prisms laterally shifting the perceived visual world cause arm movements to deviate from intended targets. The resulting error—the direct effect—both for pointing and throwing movements, usually corresponds to only around half of the prism’s optical power due to an “immediate correction effect”. We investigated the mechanisms of this immediate correction effect. In three experiments with 73 healthy subjects we find that the immediate correction effect is associated with a head and/or eye rotation. Since these rotations are subconscious they are not taken into account by the participants. These subconscious rotations compensate for a large portion of the prism’s optical effect and change the subjective straight ahead. These movements seem to be induced only in a rich visual environment and hence do not take place in the dark. They correspond to the difference between the direct effect and the optical power of the prisms and seem to cause the immediate correction effect. Hence, eye-hand adaptation only adapts to the prism’s optical power minus unconscious head rotation and hence is much smaller than the optical power of the prisms. Full article
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