Next Article in Journal
The Role of the P2X7 Receptor in Ocular Stresses: A Potential Therapeutic Target
Next Article in Special Issue
Perceiving Musical Note Values Causes Spatial Shift of Attention in Musicians
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Target Type Modulates the Effect of Task Demand on Reflexive Focal Attention
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Vision 2017, 1(2), 12; doi:10.3390/vision1020012

If not When, then Where? Ignoring Temporal Information Eliminates Reflexive but not Volitional Spatial Orienting

1
Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada
2
Psychology Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandro Soranzo, Wilson Christopher and Marco Bertamini
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reflexive Shifts in Visual Attention)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [769 KB, uploaded 12 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

A tremendous amount of research has been devoted to understanding how attention can be committed to space or time. Until recently, relatively little research has examined how attention to these two domains combine. The present study addressed this issue. We examined how implicitly manipulating whether participants used a cue to orient attention in time impacts reflexive or volitional shifts in spatial attention. Specifically, participants made speeded manual responses to the detection of a peripherally presented target that appeared either 100, 500, or 1000 ms after the onset of a central cue. Cues were either spatially non-predictive arrows (p = 0.50) or spatially-predictive (p = 0.80) letter cues. Whereas arrow cues can reflexively orient spatial attention even when non-predictive of a target’s spatial location, letters only orient spatial attention when they reliably predict a target location, i.e., the shift is volitional. Further, in one task, a target was presented on every trial, thereby encouraging participants to use the temporal information conveyed by the cue to prepare for the appearance of the target. In another task, 25% of trials contained no target, implicitly discouraging participants from using the cue to direct attention in time. Results indicate that when temporal information is reliable and therefore volitionally processed, then spatial cuing effects emerge regardless of whether attention is oriented reflexively or volitionally. However, when temporal information is unreliable, spatial cuing effects only emerge when spatial cue information is reliable, i.e., when spatial attention is volitionally shifted. Reflexive cues do not elicit spatial orienting when their temporal utility is reduced. These results converge on the notion that reflexive shifts of spatial attention are sensitive to implicit changes in a non-spatial domain, whereas explicit volitional shifts in spatial attention are not. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial attention; temporal attention; attentional orienting; reflexive attention orienting; volitional attention orienting; symbolic cue; visual attention spatial attention; temporal attention; attentional orienting; reflexive attention orienting; volitional attention orienting; symbolic cue; visual attention
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Laidlaw, K.E.W.; Kingstone, A. If not When, then Where? Ignoring Temporal Information Eliminates Reflexive but not Volitional Spatial Orienting. Vision 2017, 1, 12.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Vision EISSN 2411-5150 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top