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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3030040

Effect of Attentional Focus Instructions on Motor Learning and Performance of Patients with Central Nervous System and Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Systematic Review

1
Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genova, Campus of Savona, 17100 Savona, Italy
2
Trento Health Care Authority, 38123 Trento, Italy
3
Fondazione Ospedale San Camillo IRCCS, 30126 Venezia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Abstract

Exercise is one of the main rehabilitative interventions, commonly used to improve performance and motor learning. During the application of attentional focus strategies, External Focus of Attention (EFA) aiming at the movement effect has been reported to have more efficacy than Internal Focus of Attention (IFA) aiming at movement characteristics in healthy subjects. There are not many studies that compare the EFA and IFA instructions in people with Musculoskeletal (MSK) and Central Nervous System disorders (CNS). The purpose of this systematic review is to determine if IFA or EFA, in patients with CNS or MSK, may improve performance and have some effects on motor learning. Databases used for research: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PEDro, PsycINFO, SCOPUS. Inclusion criteria: Randomized Controlled Trial, quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial, enrolled subjects with CNS or with MSK and compared the efficacy of EFA and IFA. The studies suggest that the EFA is better than IFA in affecting the movement execution in patients with MSK, while conflicted findings emerge in presence of CNS disorders. Studies included in the qualitative analysis showed heterogeneous methodological features in study design and conductance, so results must be interpreted with caution. View Full-Text
Keywords: attentional focus; motor learning; performance; exercise therapy attentional focus; motor learning; performance; exercise therapy
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Piccoli, A.; Rossettini, G.; Cecchetto, S.; Viceconti, A.; Ristori, D.; Turolla, A.; Maselli, F.; Testa, M. Effect of Attentional Focus Instructions on Motor Learning and Performance of Patients with Central Nervous System and Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Systematic Review. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3, 40.

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