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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3010007

The Role of Exercise in Pediatric and Adolescent Cancers: A Review of Assessments and Suggestions for Clinical Implementation

1
Chair American College of Sports Medicine Special Interest Group on Cancer, Sports and Exercise Medicine Center, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy
2
Sports and Exercise Medicine Center, Clinical and Experimental Department, School of Sports Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy
3
The Meyer Hospital, University Hospital (AOU Meyer), Viale Pieraccini 24, 50139 Firenze, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 14 January 2018
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Abstract

In the European Union, five-year survival rates for childhood cancer patients are approaching 72–80%, which is a testament to better diagnostics and improved treatment. As a result, a large proportion of childhood cancer patients go on to live productive lives well past reproductive age. While this is encouraging, childhood cancer treatment is accompanied by multiple long-term adverse effects on physical and mental wellbeing. While there are several approaches to address mental health, reproductive integrity, secondary pathologies, and recurrence, in order to optimize quality of life in childhood cancer patients, exercise and nutrition should also be considered. It is clear that physical activity plays an important role in the prevention and reduction of long-term adverse side effects associated with cancer treatment in both children and adults. However, the current exercise guidelines for cancer survivors are based on adult data and accordingly are not appropriate for children. As children and adults are markedly different, including both the pathophysiology of cancer and exercise response, treatment plans incorporating exercise for children should be age-specific and individually tailored to both reduce the development of future comorbidities and enhance physical health. The purpose of this paper is to review the predominant cancer types and effects of cancer treatment in children, describe several special considerations, and propose a framework for assessment and exercise guidelines for this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; children growth and maturation; physical activity; exercise; assessment cancer; children growth and maturation; physical activity; exercise; assessment
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Klika, R.; Tamburini, A.; Galanti, G.; Mascherini, G.; Stefani, L. The Role of Exercise in Pediatric and Adolescent Cancers: A Review of Assessments and Suggestions for Clinical Implementation. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3, 7.

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