Next Article in Journal
Indications to Promote Physical Activity during Pregnancy
Previous Article in Journal
Reliability and Validity of the Hand Reach Star Excursion Balance Test
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 30; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030030

The Role of Malnutrition during Pregnancy and Its Effects on Brain and Skeletal Muscle Postnatal Development

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 87, 95125 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [225 KB, uploaded 11 August 2017]

Abstract

“Foetal programming” refers to nutritional and hormonal variations during pregnancy. A maternal proper diet has a fundamental role in decreasing pregnancy complications and to prevent possible diseases in postnatal life. In our narrative review, we analyze and discuss the role of malnutrition during pregnancy and its effects on pre- and postnatal development of embryos. Our review proposes a comprehensive and careful analysis of the studies in this field regarding malnutrition and foetal programming. Evidence shows that nutrient imbalance before implantation may result in somatic hypoevolutism at birth, and endocrine and metabolic dysfunctions in postnatal life. In addition, the maternal malnutrition could exert a suppressive effect on the maternal and foetal immune response. It could also affect both the proliferation of myogenic precursors reducing the number of muscle fibres and the future reproductive maturation with possible consequent impaired fertility and quality of gametes. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop dietary strategies to optimize nutrition, not only during pregnancy but already when it is programmed, in order to improve the outcomes of pregnancy, promote growth, healthy child development, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and slow down the metabolic decline associated with aging. View Full-Text
Keywords: malnutrition; pregnancy; foetal programming; postnatal life; maternal diet malnutrition; pregnancy; foetal programming; postnatal life; maternal diet
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Castrogiovanni, P.; Imbesi, R. The Role of Malnutrition during Pregnancy and Its Effects on Brain and Skeletal Muscle Postnatal Development. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top