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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Cover Story The hand reach star excursion balance test (HSEBT) was developed to measure full-body movements and [...] Read more.
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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Exercise and Nutrition for Health
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 22; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030022
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
We are glad to introduce the new Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in recent years in the field of Exercise and Nutrition for Health, chosen by our Editorial Board members. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in
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We are glad to introduce the new Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in recent years in the field of Exercise and Nutrition for Health, chosen by our Editorial Board members. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the importance of aspects of exercise and nutrition seen also from the scientific point of view. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Haemophilia on the Postural Control of Adolescents
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 24; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030024
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
A small number of studies have reported that children and adults with haemophilia have impaired balance control and show faster body sway during upright stance than healthy individuals. A decrease of somatosensory information due to multiple bleedings has been suggested to explain this
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A small number of studies have reported that children and adults with haemophilia have impaired balance control and show faster body sway during upright stance than healthy individuals. A decrease of somatosensory information due to multiple bleedings has been suggested to explain this difference. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine if haemophilia is related to a decreased balance control under altered visual and proprioceptive conditions in male adolescents. Postural sway of healthy (n = 12, Age = 14.8 ± 1.4 years; BMI = 19.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) and haemophiliac (n = 8, Age = 15.0 ± 1.4 years; BMI = 20.4 ± 3.2 kg/m2) male adolescents was measured with a force platform for normal quiet stance lasting 30 s with open and closed eyes on hard and foam floor conditions. The ANOVA revealed a significant Group × Vision × Proprioception (F(1,18) = 5.861, p < 0.05) interaction. Both groups showed an increased centre of pressure (COP) speed when vision and proprioception are challenged. Planned comparisons revealed that the haemophiliac group oscillated at a faster COP speed than the healthy group when vision is altered in hard floor (1.11 ± 0.27 versus 0.76 ± 0.19 cm/s; p < 0.05) and foam floor (6.83 ± 1.68 versus 4.89 ± 1.05 cm/s; p < 0.01) conditions. More important, haemophiliac adolescents were more disturbed by the proprioceptive condition and had a significantly higher COP speed on the foam even if vision is available (3.02 ± 0.47 versus 2.34 ± 0.45 cm/s; p < 0.05) compared to the healthy adolescents. In conclusion, haemophilia clearly affects postural control in altered sensory conditions. Our results suggest that haemophilia has a negative impact on the capacity of male adolescents to adequately use proprioceptive information for posture control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Human Posture and Movement)
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Open AccessArticle FGFs Treatment on Amputated Lizard Limbs Stimulate the Regeneration of Long Bones, Opening New Avenues for Limb Regeneration in Amniotes: A Morphological Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 25; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030025
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Previous studies indicated that Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are present during tail and early limb regeneration in lizards, but FGFs disappear in the limb that turns into a scar and does not regenerate at 25–40 days post-amputation. Based on these indications, the aim
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Previous studies indicated that Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are present during tail and early limb regeneration in lizards, but FGFs disappear in the limb that turns into a scar and does not regenerate at 25–40 days post-amputation. Based on these indications, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of administered FGFs on limb regeneration in lizards by injections of FGF1–2 into amputated hind-limbs that were studied between 40 and 70 days post-amputation. Outgrowths of 2.0 to 3.5 mm were produced but they did not develop an autopodium during this period. The skin remained most un-scaled, resembling that of a tail blastema. Four hours before sacrifice, the animals were injected with 5BrdU to study cell proliferation using microscopic and immunofluorescent methods. Histological examination of the outgrowths at 40–70 days of regeneration showed the presence a rod of cartilage (femur), or partially or completely sub-divided into two parts likely corresponding to a tibia and fibula. The regenerated cartilage was in continuity with the transected long bones and was surrounded by a perichondrium and a dense connective tissue, sparse nerves while muscles were reduced or absent. Qualitative observations on 5BrdU-immunolabeling indicated that most proliferating cells were present in the apical wound epidermis, the apical-most perichondrium and in the regenerating scales at 40–60 days post-amputation, but decreased at 70 days. Few 5BrdU-labeled cells were seen in other tissues, including in the regenerated cartilages. The present study indicates that FGF1-2 treatment in lizards mainly stimulate cartilage regeneration and the formation of a thick epidermis with an Apical Epidermal Peg, the epidermal micro-region that favors regeneration. In summary, these results suggest that FGFs treatments on amputated limbs could also be attempted in others amniotes, including mammals. However FGFs are not capable to induce an autopodium, which requires further signaling factors for its formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Balance Performance in Collegiate Athletes: A Comparison of Balance Error Scoring System Measures
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 26; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030026
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
The assessment of balance among athletes is essential for training, prevention and rehabilitation of injuries resulting from postural instability. The purpose of the investigation was to validate the Sway Medical Balance Application (SMBA) against the Biodex Balance System (BBS) during the Balance Error
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The assessment of balance among athletes is essential for training, prevention and rehabilitation of injuries resulting from postural instability. The purpose of the investigation was to validate the Sway Medical Balance Application (SMBA) against the Biodex Balance System (BBS) during the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) protocol. One hundred and eighty-four Division-II male and female athletes from different sporting disciplines were evaluated using SMBA and BBS while performing all five testing conditions of the BESS. Pearson’s r correlations were used to determine the relationship between the two systems during each of the five conditions and an overall score. The significant relationship and very high correlation between the two systems validates the SMBA as a valid tool that can be used to assess balance in a time- and cost-effective manner in any setting with ease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Human Posture and Movement)
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Open AccessArticle Reliability and Validity of the Hand Reach Star Excursion Balance Test
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 28; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030028
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Measuring dynamic postural control and mobility using task-based full-body movements has been advocated. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) is well-established, but it does not elicit large upper body joint movements. Therefore, the hand reach star excursion balance test (HSEBT) was developed. The
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Measuring dynamic postural control and mobility using task-based full-body movements has been advocated. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) is well-established, but it does not elicit large upper body joint movements. Therefore, the hand reach star excursion balance test (HSEBT) was developed. The purpose of the current study was to assess the inter-rater and test-retest reliability and validity of the HSEBT. Twenty-nine healthy male subjects performed ten HSEBT reaches on each leg on four different occasions, led by three different raters. Reach distances were recorded in centimeters and degrees. Then, twenty-eight different healthy males performed the HSEBT while using a standard motion capture system. Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (range 0.77–0.98). Stability of measurement was assessed using the standard error of measurement (SEM) (range 0.3–2.8 cm and 1.7°–2.6°) and coefficient of variation (CV) (range 2.1–14.6%). Change scores were obtained using minimal detectable change (MDC95) (range 0.9–7.9 cm and 4.7°–7.2°). Observed (Maxm) and calculated (Maxkin) maximum hand reach measurements showed good to excellent correlations. Bland Altman analysis established a fixed bias for all tests, which can be partially explained by the kinematic calculations. In conclusion, the HSEBT is a valid and reliable full-body clinical tool for measuring dynamic postural control and functional joint mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Isokinetic Single-Leg Cycling as a Rehabilitation Exercise Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 32; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030032
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most commonly injured ligaments, with over 250,000 injuries per year in the United States. Previous studies have found that ACL-deficient individuals avoid use of the quadriceps in the injured limb as a means of
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The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most commonly injured ligaments, with over 250,000 injuries per year in the United States. Previous studies have found that ACL-deficient individuals avoid use of the quadriceps in the injured limb as a means of limiting anterior movement of the tibia in the absence of a functioning ACL. From these results, a study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of isokinetic single-leg cycling in increasing quadriceps muscle recruitment and activation. Ten control and seven ACL-reconstructed subjects completed a series of 15 s cycling trials in isokinetic mode at 75 rpm, while kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data of the lower limbs were collected, with the trials including both double-leg and single-leg cycling. It was hypothesized that there would be an increase in quadriceps muscle activity, peak knee extensor moment, and knee joint power in single-leg cycling when compared to double-leg cycling. The results of the study suggest that single-leg cycling may be an effective exercise in increasing the strength of the quadriceps following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Although no significant changes occurred, the results indicate that, given a specific limb power, more muscle force will be generated from the quadriceps muscle group in single-leg cycling than double-leg cycling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pulling Exercises for Strength Training and Rehabilitation: Movements and Loading Conditions
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 33; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030033
Received: 8 July 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
The back is an extremely common site of injury among both athletes and sedentary people. Furthermore, low back pain has become prevalent in our society. Maintaining strong back muscles can help prevent future pain or injuries. Here, the aim is therefore to assess
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The back is an extremely common site of injury among both athletes and sedentary people. Furthermore, low back pain has become prevalent in our society. Maintaining strong back muscles can help prevent future pain or injuries. Here, the aim is therefore to assess the kinetic and kinematic movements of four pulling exercises with different external loading directions. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed using a 3D motion capture system. The pulley machine was equipped with a load cell for force data acquisition. The exercises consisted of 8 repetitions each of the lat pulldown (25% and 50% body weight (BW) extra load), the lat pulldown with 45° incline (10% and 25% BW), the seated cable row (25% and 50% BW) and the upright row (standing, 10% and 25% BW). The minimum and maximum curvature angle in the thoracic as well as the lumbar spine was larger during the upright row than during the other exercises. Furthermore, during the upright row, the sagittal moment in the shoulder joint is opposed to the other exercises in the direction of retroversion. Due to the higher lumbar curvature observed in low back patients, to avoid overload, it is not advisable for patients with back pain to perform upright rows. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Proliferating Cells in Knee Epiphyses of Lizards Allow for Somatic Growth and Regeneration after Damage
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 23; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030023
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
After bone damage, fracture or amputation, lizards regenerate a variable mass of cartilaginous and fibro-cartilaginous tissues, depending from the anatomical site and intensity of inflammation. Aside tail and vertebrae, also long bones and knee epiphyses can regenerate a relative large mass of cartilage
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After bone damage, fracture or amputation, lizards regenerate a variable mass of cartilaginous and fibro-cartilaginous tissues, depending from the anatomical site and intensity of inflammation. Aside tail and vertebrae, also long bones and knee epiphyses can regenerate a relative large mass of cartilage after injury. Regeneration is likely related to the persistence of stem cells in growing centers of these bones, localized in the epiphyses of femur, tibia and fibula. The epiphyses form ossified secondary centers in adults but a few progenitor cells remain in the articular cartilage and growth plate, allowing a continuous growth during most lifetime of lizards. The present Review indicates that putative progenitor/stem cells, identified by long labeling retaining of 5-bromo-deoxy-uridine (5BrdU) and immunolocalization of telomerase, remain localized in the articular cartilage and growth plates of the femur and tibia. These cells are re-activated after limited epiphyses damage or amputation of the distal part of the femur or tibia-fibula, and can re-form cartilaginous epiphyses. Regenerating chondrocytes show an intense proliferation and the production of new extracellular matrix components such as collagen VI, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, and hyaluronate receptors. The molecular factors at the origin of the chondrogenic potential of the articular cartilage, growth plates, and the periosteum in lizard bones remain to be studied. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Role for Soluble IL-6 Receptor in Osteoarthritis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 27; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030027
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of several pro-inflammatory cytokines present at elevated levels in the synovial fluid of individuals with confirmed clinical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The mechanism of action of IL-6 was shown to involve its capacity to interact
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of several pro-inflammatory cytokines present at elevated levels in the synovial fluid of individuals with confirmed clinical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The mechanism of action of IL-6 was shown to involve its capacity to interact with a membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (mIL-6Rα), also known as the “classical” IL-6 pathway, or through its interaction with a soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) termed the “trans-signaling” pathway. Activation of downstream signaling is transduced via these IL-6 receptors and principally involves the Janus Kinase/Signal Transduction and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway that is further regulated by glycoprotein-130 (gp130) interacting with the IL-6/mIL-6R complex. Phosphorylation of STAT proteins via JAK activation facilitates STAT proteins to act as transcription factors in inflammation. However, the biological function(s) of the sIL-6R in human chondrocytes requires further elucidation, although we previously showed that exogenous sIL-6R significantly suppressed the synthesis of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the immortalized line of human chondrocytes, C28/I2. NGAL was shown to regulate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), whose activity is crucial in OA for the destruction of articular cartilage. The “shedding” of sIL-6R from the plasma membrane is carried out by a family of enzymes known as A Distintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM), which are also elevated in OA. In this paper, we have systematically reviewed the role played by IL-6 in OA. We have proposed that sIL-6R may be an important target for future drug development in OA by ameliorating cartilage extracellular protein degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Articular Cells and Tissues in Health and Osteoarthritis)
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Open AccessReview Do Muscle Strength Imbalances and Low Flexibility Levels Lead to Low Back Pain? A Brief Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 29; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030029
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been related to hips, trunk and spine strength imbalances and/or low flexibility levels. However, it is not clear if the assessment and normalization of these variables are effective for prevention of low back pain (LBP) episodes and
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Chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been related to hips, trunk and spine strength imbalances and/or low flexibility levels. However, it is not clear if the assessment and normalization of these variables are effective for prevention of low back pain (LBP) episodes and rehabilitation of patients with CLBP. This brief review explored studies that have associated hip, trunk and spine strength imbalances and/or low flexibility levels to LBP episodes or CLBP condition. Fourteen studies were selected by accessing PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Collectively, the selected studies demonstrate that trunk eccentric/concentric and flexion/extension strength imbalances may be associated with CLBP or LBP episodes. However, the literature fails to demonstrate any clear relationship between hip strength imbalances or low levels of spine flexibility with CLBP or LBP episodes. In addition, there is no direct evidence to support the idea that the normalization of these variables due to resistance and flexibility training leads to pain reduction and functionality improvements in subjects with CLBP. Although further investigation is needed, the lack of a clear direct association between hip strength imbalances or spine low flexibility levels to CLBP or LBP episodes may demonstrate that these variables may have very low effect within the complexity of these conditions. Full article
Open AccessReview The Role of Malnutrition during Pregnancy and Its Effects on Brain and Skeletal Muscle Postnatal Development
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 30; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030030
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
“Foetal programming” refers to nutritional and hormonal variations during pregnancy. A maternal proper diet has a fundamental role in decreasing pregnancy complications and to prevent possible diseases in postnatal life. In our narrative review, we analyze and discuss the role of malnutrition during
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“Foetal programming” refers to nutritional and hormonal variations during pregnancy. A maternal proper diet has a fundamental role in decreasing pregnancy complications and to prevent possible diseases in postnatal life. In our narrative review, we analyze and discuss the role of malnutrition during pregnancy and its effects on pre- and postnatal development of embryos. Our review proposes a comprehensive and careful analysis of the studies in this field regarding malnutrition and foetal programming. Evidence shows that nutrient imbalance before implantation may result in somatic hypoevolutism at birth, and endocrine and metabolic dysfunctions in postnatal life. In addition, the maternal malnutrition could exert a suppressive effect on the maternal and foetal immune response. It could also affect both the proliferation of myogenic precursors reducing the number of muscle fibres and the future reproductive maturation with possible consequent impaired fertility and quality of gametes. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop dietary strategies to optimize nutrition, not only during pregnancy but already when it is programmed, in order to improve the outcomes of pregnancy, promote growth, healthy child development, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and slow down the metabolic decline associated with aging. Full article
Open AccessReview Indications to Promote Physical Activity during Pregnancy
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(3), 31; doi:10.3390/jfmk2030031
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
Reduced physical activity in pregnancy is often associated with a progressive increase of chronic metabolic disease and to an enhanced risk for the child. The majority of women are less physically active during pregnancy, despite the motivation to improve their health, quality of
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Reduced physical activity in pregnancy is often associated with a progressive increase of chronic metabolic disease and to an enhanced risk for the child. The majority of women are less physically active during pregnancy, despite the motivation to improve their health, quality of life, and fitness. Education on the benefits of regular physical activity in pregnancy is determinant as suggested by obstetricians and gynecologists. The specific programs need to be supported by specialists in Sports Medicine. Counseling and support by nurses can also be helpful in encouraging women to maintain a sufficient level of physical activity during pregnancy or to modify their lifestyle, adapting the single models and specific physical activity programs to their needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases 2017)
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