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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1(2), 230-239; doi:10.3390/jfmk1020230

The Role of Compensatory Adaptations and Individual Variability in Exercise Prescription

Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Academic Editor: Laura Stefani
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [812 KB, uploaded 11 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for public health. Due to the decline in physical demands of daily living exercise becomes an increasingly important contributor to an active lifestyle. The evidence on health benefits of exercise, particularly regarding weight loss, however, remains equivocal. In addition to lack of adherence to an exercise program, participants display behavioral and physiological adaptations that potentially mitigate exercise-induced health benefits. Specifically, a reduction in non-exercise physical activity (PA) and/or an increase in energy intake along with metabolic adaptations have been suggested to affect exercise-induced health benefits. There is also a large inter-individual variability, which makes some participants more receptive to exercise-induced weight loss than others. Even in the absence of weight loss exercise, however, provides various health benefits such as an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness, beneficial changes in blood lipids and blood pressure. In fact, some of these benefits have been more pronounced in participants who did not experience weight loss. In order to enhance the understanding of the role of exercise in health promotion a better understanding of compensatory adaptations is needed along with an identification of characteristics that contribute to inter-individual variability in response to exercise interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy balance; weight loss; intervention; non-exercise physical activity; energy intake; behavioral compensation; metabolic compensation energy balance; weight loss; intervention; non-exercise physical activity; energy intake; behavioral compensation; metabolic compensation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Drenowatz, C. The Role of Compensatory Adaptations and Individual Variability in Exercise Prescription. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2016, 1, 230-239.

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