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Instruments 2018, 2(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2020007

A Nuclear Emulsion Detector for the Muon Radiography of a Glacier Structure

1
Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, University of Bern, Bern 3012, Switzerland
2
Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
3
Institute for Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern 3012, Switzerland
4
Department of Physics “Ettore Pancini”, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli 80126, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
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Abstract

Cosmic ray muons can be used to image the interior of geological sites provided that one employs detectors able to operate in the specific harsh conditions of the mountain environment. We designed and developed a detector exploiting the nuclear emulsion technique to assess the bedrock profile underneath an alpine glacier. Nuclear emulsions do not need any electric power supply or maintenance and allow for the measurement of the muon flux and direction behind a large target volume. The 3D density distribution of the material traversed by muons can then be assessed, bringing relevant information on the shape of the boundary between the glacial ice and the underlying bedrock. This new methodology in the geological field was recently tested in a campaign of measurements in the Jungfrau region of the central Swiss Alps. It was shown that the bedrock surface position can be measured with a resolution of about 5 % when the traversed target is about 100 m thick. Characteristics and performance of the method are reported here and demonstrate that muon radiography based on emulsion detectors represents a powerful tool for the geological study of glaciers. View Full-Text
Keywords: muon radiography; glaciers; emulsion detectors muon radiography; glaciers; emulsion detectors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Ereditato, A.; Käser, S.; Lechmann, A.; Mair, D.; Nishiyama, R.; Pistillo, C.; Scampoli, P.; Schlunegger, F.; Vladymyrov, M. A Nuclear Emulsion Detector for the Muon Radiography of a Glacier Structure. Instruments 2018, 2, 7.

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