Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Instruments, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-4
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview Cyclotron Production of Unconventional Radionuclides for PET Imaging: the Example of Titanium-45 and Its Applications
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
PDF Full-text (1380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Positron emitting radionuclides are used to label different compounds, allowing the study of the major biological systems using PET (positron emission tomography) imaging. Although there are several radionuclides suited for PET imaging, routine clinical applications are still based on a restrict group constituted
[...] Read more.
Positron emitting radionuclides are used to label different compounds, allowing the study of the major biological systems using PET (positron emission tomography) imaging. Although there are several radionuclides suited for PET imaging, routine clinical applications are still based on a restrict group constituted by 18F, 11C, and, more recently, 68Ga. However, with the enlarged availability of low-energy cyclotrons and technical improvements in radionuclide production, the use of unconventional radionuclides is progressively more common. Several examples of unconventional radionuclides for PET imaging are being suggested, and 45Ti could be suggested as a model, due to its interesting properties such as its abundant positron emission (85%), reduced positron energy (β+ endpoint energy = 1040 keV), physical half-life of 3.09 h, and interesting chemical properties. This review aims to introduce the role of cyclotrons in the production of unconventional radionuclides for PET imaging while using 45Ti as an example to explore the potential biomedical applications of those radionuclides in PET imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Nuclear Emulsion Detector for the Muon Radiography of a Glacier Structure
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
PDF Full-text (2847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cosmic ray muons can be used to image the interior of geological sites provided that one employs detectors able to operate in the specific harsh conditions of the mountain environment. We designed and developed a detector exploiting the nuclear emulsion technique to assess
[...] Read more.
Cosmic ray muons can be used to image the interior of geological sites provided that one employs detectors able to operate in the specific harsh conditions of the mountain environment. We designed and developed a detector exploiting the nuclear emulsion technique to assess the bedrock profile underneath an alpine glacier. Nuclear emulsions do not need any electric power supply or maintenance and allow for the measurement of the muon flux and direction behind a large target volume. The 3D density distribution of the material traversed by muons can then be assessed, bringing relevant information on the shape of the boundary between the glacial ice and the underlying bedrock. This new methodology in the geological field was recently tested in a campaign of measurements in the Jungfrau region of the central Swiss Alps. It was shown that the bedrock surface position can be measured with a resolution of about 5 % when the traversed target is about 100 m thick. Characteristics and performance of the method are reported here and demonstrate that muon radiography based on emulsion detectors represents a powerful tool for the geological study of glaciers. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Ultra-Fast Imaging and Neutron Emission from a Compact Dense Plasma Focus Fusion Device
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, there has been intense interest in small dense plasma focus (DPF) devices for use as pulsed neutron and X-ray sources. Although DPFs have been studied for decades and scaling laws for neutron yield versus system discharge current and energy have been established
[...] Read more.
Recently, there has been intense interest in small dense plasma focus (DPF) devices for use as pulsed neutron and X-ray sources. Although DPFs have been studied for decades and scaling laws for neutron yield versus system discharge current and energy have been established (Milanese, M. et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 2003, 27, 77–81), there are notable deviations at low energies due to contributions from both thermonuclear and beam-target interactions (Schmidt, A. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2012, 109, 1–4). For low energy DPFs (100 s of Joules), other empirical scaling laws have been found (Bures, B.L. et al., Phys. Plasmas 2012, 112702, 1–9). Although theoretical mechanisms to explain this change have been proposed, the cause of this reduced efficiency is not well understood. A new apparatus with advanced diagnostic capabilities allows us to probe this regime, including variants in which a piston gas is employed. Several complementary diagnostics of the pinch dynamics and resulting X-ray neutron production are employed to understand the underlying mechanisms involved. This apparatus is unique in its employment of a 50 fs laser-based shadowgraphy system that possesses unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Low-Cost, Simplified Platform of Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for Rapid, Forensic Evidence Screening on Portable Mass Spectrometric Instrumentation
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
PDF Full-text (14902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Portable mass spectrometers (MS) are becoming more prevalent due to improved instrumentation, commercialization, and the robustness of new ionization methodologies. To increase utility towards diverse field-based applications, there is an inherent need for rugged ionization source platforms that are simple, yet robust towards
[...] Read more.
Portable mass spectrometers (MS) are becoming more prevalent due to improved instrumentation, commercialization, and the robustness of new ionization methodologies. To increase utility towards diverse field-based applications, there is an inherent need for rugged ionization source platforms that are simple, yet robust towards analytical scenarios that may arise. Ambient ionization methodologies have evolved to target specific real-world problems and fulfill requirements of the analysis at hand. Ambient ionization techniques continue to advance towards higher performance, with specific sources showing variable proficiency depending on application area. To realize the full potential and applicability of ambient ionization methods, a selection of sources may be more prudent, showing a need for a low-cost, flexible ionization source platform. This manuscript describes a centralized system that was developed for portable MS systems that incorporates modular, rapidly-interchangeable ionization sources comprised of low-cost, commercially-available parts. Herein, design considerations are reported for a suite of ambient ionization sources that can be crafted with minimal machining or customization. Representative spectral data is included to demonstrate applicability towards field processing of forensic evidence. While this platform is demonstrated on portable instrumentation, retrofitting to lab-scale MS systems is anticipated. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top