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Fishes 2018, 3(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3020024

Immune-Endocrine Interactions in the Fish Gonad during Infection: An Open Door to Vertical Transmission

1
Grupo de Marcadores Inmunológicos, Laboratorio de Genética e Inmunología Molecular, Instituto de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, 2340025 Valparaíso, Chile
2
Fish Innate Immune System Group, Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
3
Marine Immunebiology Laboratory Department of Earth and Marine Science, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze ED. 16, Conisma, 90133 Palermo, Italy
4
Centro Oceanográfico de Murcia, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Carretera de la Azohía s/n, Puerto de Mazarrón, 30860 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Endocrine and Immune Systems in Fish)
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Abstract

The interaction between the immune and endocrine systems has long been recognized in vertebrates. In fish, it is known that the prevalence and intensity of such infections are higher in males than in females and probably related to sex steroid hormone levels. In addition, the immune response in the fish gonad tissues is specifically regulated to prevent infertility. This condition is used by some pathogens to colonize the fish gonad, evade the systemic immune response, and so spread to the progeny. This review brings up to date our knowledge concerning fish gonad immunity and its regulation, immune-endocrine interactions, and how some pathogens use this tissue to spread to the progeny through vertical transmission. More specifically, we will look at the case of the European sea bass and nodavirus (NNV). Sea bass is a very susceptible fish species to NNV infections, and this virus has been associated to vertical transmission since it is detected in gonad fluids as well as in testicular gametes. In fact, sea bass immunity in the gonad is regulated in a very different way to other target tissues (brain and retina) or immune-relevant tissues (head-kidney or spleen). View Full-Text
Keywords: fish; immunity; endocrinology; immune-endocrine interaction; gonad; disease; nodavirus; maternal transfer fish; immunity; endocrinology; immune-endocrine interaction; gonad; disease; nodavirus; maternal transfer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Valero, Y.; Cuesta, A.; Cammarata, M.; Esteban, M.A.; Chaves-Pozo, E. Immune-Endocrine Interactions in the Fish Gonad during Infection: An Open Door to Vertical Transmission. Fishes 2018, 3, 24.

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