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Cryptography, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Cryptographically Secure Multiparty Computation and Distributed Auctions Using Homomorphic Encryption
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030025
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
We introduce a robust framework that allows for cryptographically secure multiparty computations, such as distributed private value auctions. The security is guaranteed by two-sided authentication of all network connections, homomorphically encrypted bids, and the publication of zero-knowledge proofs of every computation. This also
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We introduce a robust framework that allows for cryptographically secure multiparty computations, such as distributed private value auctions. The security is guaranteed by two-sided authentication of all network connections, homomorphically encrypted bids, and the publication of zero-knowledge proofs of every computation. This also allows a non-participant verifier to verify the result of any such computation using only the information broadcasted on the network by each individual bidder. Building on previous work on such systems, we design and implement an extensible framework that puts the described ideas to practice. Apart from the actual implementation of the framework, our biggest contribution is the level of protection we are able to guarantee from attacks described in previous work. In order to provide guidance to users of the library, we analyze the use of zero knowledge proofs in ensuring the correct behavior of each node in a computation. We also describe the usage of the library to perform a private-value distributed auction, as well as the other challenges in implementing the protocol, such as auction registration and certificate distribution. Finally, we provide performance statistics on our implementation of the auction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anomalous Traffic Detection and Self-Similarity Analysis in the Environment of ATMSim
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030024
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Internet utilisation has steadily increased, predominantly due to the rapid recent development of information and communication networks and the widespread distribution of smartphones. As a result of this increase in Internet consumption, various types of services, including web services, social networking services (SNS),
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Internet utilisation has steadily increased, predominantly due to the rapid recent development of information and communication networks and the widespread distribution of smartphones. As a result of this increase in Internet consumption, various types of services, including web services, social networking services (SNS), Internet banking, and remote processing systems have been created. These services have significantly enhanced global quality of life. However, as a negative side-effect of this rapid development, serious information security problems have also surfaced, which has led to serious to Internet privacy invasions and network attacks. In an attempt to contribute to the process of addressing these problems, this paper proposes a process to detect anomalous traffic using self-similarity analysis in the Anomaly Teletraffic detection Measurement analysis Simulator (ATMSim) environment as a research method. Simulations were performed to measure normal and anomalous traffic. First, normal traffic for each attack, including the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) was measured for 48 h over 10 iterations. Hadoop was used to facilitate processing of the large amount of collected data, after which MapReduce was utilised after storing the data in the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). A new platform on Hadoop, the detection system ATMSim, was used to identify anomalous traffic after which a comparative analysis of the normal and anomalous traffic was performed through a self-similarity analysis. There were four categories of collected traffic that were divided according to the attack methods used: normal local area network (LAN) traffic, DDoS attack, and ARP spoofing, as well as DDoS and ARP attack. ATMSim, the anomaly traffic detection system, was used to determine if real attacks could be identified effectively. To achieve this, the ATMSim was used in simulations for each scenario to test its ability to distinguish between normal and anomalous traffic. The graphic and quantitative analyses in this study, based on the self-similarity estimation for the four different traffic types, showed a burstiness phenomenon when anomalous traffic occurred and self-similarity values were high. This differed significantly from the results obtained when normal traffic, such as LAN traffic, occurred. In further studies, this anomaly detection approach can be utilised with biologically inspired techniques that can predict behaviour, such as the artificial neural network (ANN) or fuzzy approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biometric and Bio-inspired Approaches in Cryptography)
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Open AccessArticle FPGA Implementation of a Cryptographically-Secure PUF Based on Learning Parity with Noise
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030023
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
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Abstract
Herder et al. (IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 2017) designed a new computational fuzzy extractor and physical unclonable function (PUF) challenge-response protocol based on the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem. The protocol requires no irreversible state updates on the PUFs
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Herder et al. (IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 2017) designed a new computational fuzzy extractor and physical unclonable function (PUF) challenge-response protocol based on the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem. The protocol requires no irreversible state updates on the PUFs for security, like burning irreversible fuses, and can correct for significant measurement noise when compared to PUFs using a conventional (information theoretical secure) fuzzy extractor. However, Herder et al. did not implement their protocol. In this paper, we give the first implementation of a challenge response protocol based on computational fuzzy extractors. Our main insight is that “confidence information” does not need to be kept private, if the noise vector is independent of the confidence information, e.g., the bits generated by ring oscillator pairs which are physically placed close to each other. This leads to a construction which is a simplified version of the design of Herder et al. (also building on a ring oscillator PUF). Our simplifications allow for a dramatic reduction in area by making a mild security assumption on ring oscillator physical obfuscated key output bits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PUF-Based Authentication)
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Open AccessArticle Learning Global-Local Distance Metrics for Signature-Based Biometric Cryptosystems
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030022
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
Biometric traits, such as fingerprints, faces and signatures have been employed in bio-cryptosystems to secure cryptographic keys within digital security schemes. Reliable implementations of these systems employ error correction codes formulated as simple distance thresholds, although they may not effectively model the complex
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Biometric traits, such as fingerprints, faces and signatures have been employed in bio-cryptosystems to secure cryptographic keys within digital security schemes. Reliable implementations of these systems employ error correction codes formulated as simple distance thresholds, although they may not effectively model the complex variability of behavioral biometrics like signatures. In this paper, a Global-Local Distance Metric (GLDM) framework is proposed to learn cost-effective distance metrics, which reduce within-class variability and augment between-class variability, so that simple error correction thresholds of bio-cryptosystems provide high classification accuracy. First, a large number of samples from a development dataset are used to train a global distance metric that differentiates within-class from between-class samples of the population. Then, once user-specific samples are available for enrollment, the global metric is tuned to a local user-specific one. Proof-of-concept experiments on two reference offline signature databases confirm the viability of the proposed approach. Distance metrics are produced based on concise signature representations consisting of about 20 features and a single prototype. A signature-based bio-cryptosystem is designed using the produced metrics and has shown average classification error rates of about 7% and 17% for the PUCPR and the GPDS-300 databases, respectively. This level of performance is comparable to that obtained with complex state-of-the-art classifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biometric and Bio-inspired Approaches in Cryptography)
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Open AccessArticle A Cryptographic System Based upon the Principles of Gene Expression
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030021
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Processes of gene expression such as regulation of transcription by the general transcription complex can be used to create hard cryptographic protocols which should not be breakable by common cipherattack methodologies. The eukaryotic processes of gene expression permit expansion of DNA cryptography into
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Processes of gene expression such as regulation of transcription by the general transcription complex can be used to create hard cryptographic protocols which should not be breakable by common cipherattack methodologies. The eukaryotic processes of gene expression permit expansion of DNA cryptography into complex networks of transcriptional and translational coding interactions. I describe a method of coding messages into genes and their regulatory sequences, transcription products, regulatory protein complexes, transcription proteins, translation proteins and other required sequences. These codes then serve as the basis for a cryptographic model based on the processes of gene expression. The protocol provides a hierarchal structure that extends from the initial coding of a message into a DNA code (ciphergene), through transcription and ultimately translation into a protein code (cipherprotein). The security is based upon unique knowledge of the DNA coding process, all of the regulatory codes required for expression, and their interactions. This results in a set of cryptographic protocols that is capable of securing data at rest, data in motion and providing an evolvable form of security between two or more parties. The conclusion is that implementation of these protocols will enhance security and substantially burden cyberattackers to develop new forms of countermeasures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biometric and Bio-inspired Approaches in Cryptography)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of Secure and Private Billing Protocols for Smart Metering
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030020
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Traditional utility metering is to be replaced by smart metering. Smart metering enables fine-grained utility consumption measurements. These fine-grained measurements raise privacy concerns due to the lifestyle information which can be inferred from the precise time at which utilities were consumed. This paper
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Traditional utility metering is to be replaced by smart metering. Smart metering enables fine-grained utility consumption measurements. These fine-grained measurements raise privacy concerns due to the lifestyle information which can be inferred from the precise time at which utilities were consumed. This paper outlines and compares two privacy-respecting time of use billing protocols for smart metering and investigates their performance on a variety of hardware. These protocols protect the privacy of customers by never transmitting the fine-grained utility readings outside of the customer’s home network. One protocol favors complexity on the trusted smart meter hardware while the other uses homomorphic commitments to offload computation to a third device. Both protocols are designed to operate on top of existing cryptographic secure channel protocols in place on smart meters. Proof of concept software implementations of these protocols have been written and their suitability for real world application to low-performance smart meter hardware is discussed. These protocols may also have application to other privacy conscious aggregation systems, such as electronic voting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryptographic Protocols)
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Open AccessArticle Practical Architectures for Deployment of Searchable Encryption in a Cloud Environment
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030019
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
Public cloud service providers provide an infrastructure that gives businesses and individuals access to computing power and storage space on a pay-as-you-go basis. This allows these entities to bypass the usual costs associated with having their own data centre such as: hardware, construction,
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Public cloud service providers provide an infrastructure that gives businesses and individuals access to computing power and storage space on a pay-as-you-go basis. This allows these entities to bypass the usual costs associated with having their own data centre such as: hardware, construction, air conditioning and security costs, for example, making this a cost-effective solution for data storage. If the data being stored is of a sensitive nature, encrypting it prior to outsourcing it to a public cloud is a good method of ensuring the confidentiality of the data. With the data being encrypted, however, searching over it becomes unfeasible. In this paper, we examine different architectures for supporting search over encrypted data and discuss some of the challenges that need to be overcome if these techniques are to be engineered into practical systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030018
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum
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In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryptographic Protocols)
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Open AccessArticle Leveraging Distributions in Physical Unclonable Functions
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030017
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
A special class of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) referred to as strong PUFs can be used in novel hardware-based authentication protocols. Strong PUFs are required for authentication because the bit strings and helper data are transmitted openly by the token to the verifier,
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A special class of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) referred to as strong PUFs can be used in novel hardware-based authentication protocols. Strong PUFs are required for authentication because the bit strings and helper data are transmitted openly by the token to the verifier, and therefore are revealed to the adversary. This enables the adversary to carry out attacks against the token by systematically applying challenges and obtaining responses in an attempt to machine learn, and later predict, the token’s response to an arbitrary challenge. Therefore, strong PUFs must both provide an exponentially large challenge space and be resistant to machine-learning attacks in order to be considered secure. We investigate a transformation called temperature–voltage compensation (TVCOMP), which is used within the Hardware-Embedded Delay PUF (HELP) bit string generation algorithm. TVCOMP increases the diversity and unpredictability of the challenge–response space, and therefore increases resistance to model-building attacks. HELP leverages within-die variations in path delays as a source of random information. TVCOMP is a linear transformation designed specifically for dealing with changes in delay introduced by adverse temperature–voltage (environmental) variations. In this paper, we show that TVCOMP also increases entropy and expands the challenge–response space dramatically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PUF-Based Authentication)
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Open AccessArticle A Text-Independent Speaker Authentication System for Mobile Devices
Cryptography 2017, 1(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography1030016
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a text independent speaker authentication method adapted to mobile devices. Special attention was placed on delivering a fully operational application, which admits a sufficient reliability level and an efficient functioning. To this end, we have excluded the need for any
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This paper presents a text independent speaker authentication method adapted to mobile devices. Special attention was placed on delivering a fully operational application, which admits a sufficient reliability level and an efficient functioning. To this end, we have excluded the need for any network communication. Hence, we opted for the completion of both the training and the identification processes directly on the mobile device through the extraction of linear prediction cepstral coefficients and the naive Bayes algorithm as the classifier. Furthermore, the authentication decision is enhanced to overcome misidentification through access privileges that the user should attribute to each application beforehand. To evaluate the proposed authentication system, eleven participants were involved in the experiment, conducted in quiet and noisy environments. Public speech corpora were also employed to compare this implementation to existing methods. Results were efficient regarding mobile resources’ consumption. The overall classification performance obtained was accurate with a small number of samples. Then, it appeared that our authentication system might be used as a first security layer, but also as part of a multilayer authentication, or as a fall-back mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biometric and Bio-inspired Approaches in Cryptography)
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