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J. Imaging 2017, 3(1), 11; doi:10.3390/jimaging3010011

Computer Assisted Examination of Infrared and Near Infrared Spectra to Assess Structural and Molecular Changes in Biological Samples Exposed to Pollutants: A Case of Study

1
Laboratory of Chemometrics and Environmental Applications, ISPRA, Via di Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome, Italy
2
Italian Workers’ Compensation Authority (INAIL), Department of Technological Innovation, Safety Plants and Products and Anthropic Settlements (DIT), Via Roberto Ferruzzi 38/40, 00143 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carosena Meola and Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The World in Infrared Imaging)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2258 KB, uploaded 16 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

We present a computer assisted method for the examination of the structural changes present in the probe organism Vicia faba exposed to inorganic arsenic, detected by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy. Like the common ecotoxicological tests, the method is based on the comparison among control and exposed sample spectra of the organisms to detect structural changes caused by pollutants. Using FTIR spectroscopy, we measured and plotted the spectral changes related to the unsaturated to saturated lipid ratio changes (USL), the lipid to protein ratio changes (LPR), fatty and ester fatty acid content changes (FA), protein oxidation (PO) and denaturation, and DNA and RNA changes (DNA-RNA). Using FTNIR spectroscopy, we measured two spectral ranges that belonged to hydrogen bond interactions and aliphatic lipid chains called IntHCONH and Met1overt, respectively. The FTIR results showed that As modified the DNA-RNA ratio and also caused partial protein denaturation in the Vicia faba samples. The FTNIR results supported the FTIR results. The main advantage of the proposed computational method is that it does not require a skilled infrared or near infrared operator, lending support to conventional studies performed by toxicological testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: FTIR spectroscopy; FTNIR spectroscopy; computer analysis; toxic effect of As; structural changes in organisms FTIR spectroscopy; FTNIR spectroscopy; computer analysis; toxic effect of As; structural changes in organisms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mecozzi, M.; Sturchio, E. Computer Assisted Examination of Infrared and Near Infrared Spectra to Assess Structural and Molecular Changes in Biological Samples Exposed to Pollutants: A Case of Study. J. Imaging 2017, 3, 11.

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