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Recycling, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Public Perceptions and Practices of Solid Waste Recycling in the City of Laramie in Wyoming, U.S.A.
Recycling 2017, 2(3), 11; doi:10.3390/recycling2030011
Received: 4 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Managing household solid waste is a growing challenge for many cities. To tackle this problem, cities are turning to recycling, which is an effective tool for solid waste management. This research seeks to understand the public perceptions and practices of recycling in the
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Managing household solid waste is a growing challenge for many cities. To tackle this problem, cities are turning to recycling, which is an effective tool for solid waste management. This research seeks to understand the public perceptions and practices of recycling in the City of Laramie, Wyoming. Recycling in Laramie began in 1983 with the establishment of the Ark Recycling Center. Laramie officially started its curbside recycling services in September 2011, and in April 2012 the city declared its long-term goal to achieve a 40% diversion rate by 2030. The study involved a mail-back survey to understand the public participation landscape and the factors affecting recycling behaviors and attitudes of residents in Laramie. The quantitative results of the survey responses were used to create a civic engagement score, a recycling importance score, and recycling satisfaction and recycling behavior scores to measure residents’ perceptions of the recycling program. In addition, three key informant interviews were conducted to explore the efforts of the city, the University of Wyoming, and Ark Regional Services. The results show that more than 80% of the survey respondents indicated that environmental concern was the major motivation to recycle, which was related to a high level of recycling importance and satisfaction. The study further indicated that Laramie should develop an aggressive educational policy, incentive policies, and a Master Plan to encourage stronger public participation to meet its 40% waste diversion rate by 2030 goal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Australian Economic Activities on Waste Generation and Treatment
Recycling 2017, 2(3), 12; doi:10.3390/recycling2030012
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
Understanding the relationships between the Australian economic system and waste generation from intermediate sectors and households is a prerequisite for planning and implementing waste management strategies at a national scale. Data of waste generation accounts link to those of national economic accounts. However,
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Understanding the relationships between the Australian economic system and waste generation from intermediate sectors and households is a prerequisite for planning and implementing waste management strategies at a national scale. Data of waste generation accounts link to those of national economic accounts. However, in Australia, some years’ data are absent and so these links cannot be made. To rectify this data gap, this paper interpolates and extrapolates the Australian input-output table (IOT) of 2010–2011. Waste input-output (WIO) analysis is then used to assess the effects of the Australian economy on waste generation and treatment between 2009–2010 and 2010–2011. Analysis indicated that the result of interpolation was more reasonable than that of extrapolation, and the interpolation of the Australian IOT of 2010–2011 can be applicable. This comparative analysis of the time series data in WIO model has identified that: (1) per million $AUD of output of the Construction sector generated the most amount of direct and total waste during the period; (2) the relationships between the development of Australian economy and waste generation illustrate that the Australian economy is currently a traditional linear economy; (3) the effectiveness of waste-related policies are shown by the growth of the sums of direct and total effects of intermediate sectors on the Recovery sector; and (4) the amount of waste generated by households increased sharply over the two years. The physical flows of waste footprint show details of waste generation and treatment in the Australian economic system. The information provided in this paper is beneficial to formulate tailor-made policies for waste management in Australia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Environmental Impact from Recycling the Organic Fraction of Solid Waste: Comparison of Different Treatment Schemes from a Life Cycle Perspective
Recycling 2017, 2(3), 13; doi:10.3390/recycling2030013
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
The emission of greenhouse gases and the impact from recycling the organic fraction of solid waste were investigated from a life cycle (LCA) perspective. Three different treatment schemes were investigated with the aid of a pilot apparatus including exclusively composting (COMP), integrated solid
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The emission of greenhouse gases and the impact from recycling the organic fraction of solid waste were investigated from a life cycle (LCA) perspective. Three different treatment schemes were investigated with the aid of a pilot apparatus including exclusively composting (COMP), integrated solid anaerobic batch not inoculated and post-composting (SADBPC), and an integrated solid anaerobic batch inoculated and post-composting (SADBPC-I). SADBPC-I and SADBPC generated an average of 300 NL/kgVS and 267 NL/kgVS of biogas, respectively. On the other hand, the amount of stabilized organic carbon contained in the organic fertilizer returned by COMP, SADBPC-I, and SADBPC led to a potential of 470 kgCO2 eq/Mg, 382 kgCO2 eq/Mg, and 545 kgCO2 eq/Mg sequestered in soils for each treatment scheme, respectively. The LCA study highlighted that the impact categories most affected were global warming and human toxicity cancer, and on average, the highest impact was detected for COMP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of the Redox Potential of Aqua Regia and Temperature on the Au, Cu, and Fe Dissolution from WPCBs
Recycling 2017, 2(3), 14; doi:10.3390/recycling2030014
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Constant growth in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) levels necessitates the development of new, commercially viable recycling processes. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are a sub-group of WEEE that are of increasing interest due to their relatively high level of valuable metal
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Constant growth in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) levels necessitates the development of new, commercially viable recycling processes. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are a sub-group of WEEE that are of increasing interest due to their relatively high level of valuable metal content including Au, Ag, and platinum group metals (PGMs). Currently, precious metals like gold are mainly recycled from WEEE streams through copper smelting/refining; however, the possibility to peel gold from WPCBs prior to smelting, could offer advantages for recycling. In this study, the suitability of aqua regia for selective or partially selective gold leaching from un-crushed WPCBs was investigated. The redox potential of aqua regia solutions and the dissolution efficiencies of Au, Cu, and Fe from WPCBs were investigated at different temperatures (40–80 °C) and concentrations (2–32%) in batch leaching tests. The redox potential of aqua regia solution was found to depend on concentration and temperature. It is suggested that Au dissolution in aqua regia requires dissolved Cu2+ ions originating from the WPCB material to work. Au extraction (>50%) was shown to require a redox potential >700 mV with [Cu2+] > 2500 ppm, as a potential >850 mV alone was insufficient without cupric ions. Significant amounts of Au and Cu could be dissolved with only minor Fe dissolution at ≥8% aqua regia at 80 °C. Results suggest that leaching of uncrushed WPCBs in 8% aqua regia (T = 80 °C) can provide the opportunity for partial Au recovery prior to further processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quo Vadis Recycling 6)
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Open AccessArticle Minimizing Onsite Organic Household Left-Over Waste: The Emission Benefits of Keeping Pet Rabbits.
Recycling 2017, 2(3), 15; doi:10.3390/recycling2030015
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
As waste management is becoming all the more crucial, this study investigates the way in which house left-over organic waste can be better managed on site, in order to minimize the off-site treatment cost and maximize environmental performance. For the implementation of this
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As waste management is becoming all the more crucial, this study investigates the way in which house left-over organic waste can be better managed on site, in order to minimize the off-site treatment cost and maximize environmental performance. For the implementation of this research, a full year measurement was recorded, showing the organic leftover waste food intake of two rabbits in a household of four. The organic food, collected in two separate baskets suitable for composting—though one for rabbit intake—was 168.5 kg in total, plus 68.8 kg, which was delivered directly to the composting bin, along with food remains and rabbit feces. The results show that, over the examined year, a total of up to 0.417 metric tons of CO2 equivalent per year emissions was avoided, suggesting that if 30 houses were to apply this methodology, one garbage truck journey per year would be saved. Overall, this study suggests that better information and environmental awareness can result in on-site, low cost, individual management of recyclable organic material, which would assist with the decrease in the cost of management, along with increased environmental performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relationship among Vulcanization, Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Blends Containing Recycled EPDM
Recycling 2017, 2(3), 16; doi:10.3390/recycling2030016
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The production of consumption goods made of elastomer generates large amounts of vulcanized residues. The final proper environmental disposal of this material is a serious problem, which involves high costs and a possible waste of a material with high added value. The recycling
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The production of consumption goods made of elastomer generates large amounts of vulcanized residues. The final proper environmental disposal of this material is a serious problem, which involves high costs and a possible waste of a material with high added value. The recycling of elastomers is a very important alternative since it is related directly to the protection of the environment, energy conservation, and sustainability. An option for companies that produce elastomeric residues is their incorporation in the formulations by producing polymeric blends. Thus, this work aims to prepare polymeric blends composed of ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) and raw EPDM/EPDM residue (EPDM-r) in different concentrations, when the residue is ground at room temperature. The morphology of the residue, vulcanization characteristics, mechanical properties, and morphology of the blends were analyzed, showing promising results that point to the feasibility of using EPDM-r in the production of polymeric blends and as a possible solution to the problem of the final disposal of solid residues. Full article
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