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Batteries 2018, 4(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4030040

The Effect of Sulfuric Acid Concentration on the Physical and Electrochemical Properties of Vanadyl Solutions

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, N. Dartmouth, MA 02747, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, Salve Regina University, Newport, RI 02840, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vanadium Redox Flow Battery and Its Applications)
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Abstract

The effects of sulfuric acid concentration in VO2+ solutions were investigated via electrochemical methods and electron paramagnetic resonance. The viscosity of solutions containing 0.01 M VOSO4 in 0.1–7.0 M H2SO4 was measured. Diffusion coefficients were independently measured via electrochemical methods and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), with excellent agreement between the techniques employed and literature values. Analysis of cyclic voltammograms suggest the oxidation of VO2+ to VO2+ is quasi-reversible at high H2SO4 concentrations (>5 mol/L), and approaching irreversible at lower H2SO4 concentrations. Further analysis reveals a likely electrochemical/chemical (EC) mechanism where the H2SO4 facilitates the electrochemical step but hinders the chemical step. Fundamental insights of VO2+/H2SO4 solutions can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the concentration effects in electrolyte solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs); cyclic voltammetry; electrochemical kinetics; viscosity; electron paramagnetic resonance; diffusion coefficient vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs); cyclic voltammetry; electrochemical kinetics; viscosity; electron paramagnetic resonance; diffusion coefficient
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Lawton, J.S.; Tiano, S.M.; Donnelly, D.J.; Flanagan, S.P.; Arruda, T.M. The Effect of Sulfuric Acid Concentration on the Physical and Electrochemical Properties of Vanadyl Solutions. Batteries 2018, 4, 40.

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