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Batteries 2017, 3(2), 16; doi:10.3390/batteries3020016

Influence of Using Metallic Na on the Interfacial and Transport Properties of Na-Ion Batteries

1
CIC energiGUNE, Parque Tecnológico de Álava, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Miñano, Spain
2
Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 664, 48080 Leioa, Spain
3
Scuola di Scienze e Tecnologie—Sezione Chimica, Università di Camerino, Via S. Agostino 1, 62032 Camerino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yutaka Moritomo
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Properties of Sodium-Ion Battery Materials)
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Abstract

Na2Ti3O7 is a promising negative electrode for rechargeable Na-ion batteries; however, its good properties in terms of insertion voltage and specific capacity are hampered by the poor capacity retention reported in the past. The interfacial and ionic/electronic properties are key factors to understanding the electrochemical performance of Na2Ti3O7. Therefore, its study is of utmost importance. In addition, although rather unexplored, the use of metallic Na in half-cell studies is another important issue due to the fact that side-reactions will be induced when metallic Na is in contact with the electrolyte. Hence, in this work the interfacial and transport properties of full Na-ion cells have been investigated and compared with half-cells upon electrochemical cycling by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (conventional XPS and Auger parameter analysis) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The half-cell has been assembled with C-coated Na2Ti3O7 against metallic Na whilst the full-cell uses C-coated Na2Ti3O7 as negative electrode and NaFePO4 as positive electrode, delivering 112 Wh/kganode+cathode in the 2nd cycle. When comparing both types of cells, it has been found that the interfacial properties, the OCV (open circuit voltage) and the electrode–-electrolyte interphase behavior are more stable in the full-cell than in the half-cell. The electronic transition from insulator to conductor previously observed in a half-cell for Na2Ti3O7 has also been detected in the full-cell impedance analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Na2Ti3O7; metallic sodium; NaFePO4; full-cell; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; solid electrolyte interphase; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; electronic transition Na2Ti3O7; metallic sodium; NaFePO4; full-cell; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; solid electrolyte interphase; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; electronic transition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zarrabeitia, M.; Muñoz-Márquez, M.Á.; Nobili, F.; Rojo, T.; Casas-Cabanas, M. Influence of Using Metallic Na on the Interfacial and Transport Properties of Na-Ion Batteries. Batteries 2017, 3, 16.

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