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Batteries 2016, 2(2), 15; doi:10.3390/batteries2020015

Studies on the Synergetic Effects in Multi-Phase Metal Hydride Alloys

1
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
2
BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Jossen
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4367 KB, uploaded 19 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

The electrochemical reactions of multi-phase metal hydride (MH) alloys were studied using a series of Laves phase-related body-centered-cubic (BCC) Ti15.6Zr2.1V43Cr11.2Mn6.9Co1.4Ni18.5Al0.3X (X = V, B, Mg, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, La, and Nd) alloys. These alloys are composed of BCC (major), TiNi (major), C14 (minor), and Ti2Ni (minor) phases. The BCC phase was found to be responsible for the visible equilibrium pressure plateau between 0.1 MPa and 1 MPa. The plateaus belonging to the other phases occurred below 0.005 MPa. Due to the synergetic effects of other non-BCC phases, the body-centered-tetragonal (BCT) intermediate step is skipped and the face-centered-cubic (FCC) hydride phase is formed directly. During hydrogenation in both gaseous phase and electrochemistry, the non-BCC phases were first charged to completion, followed by charging of the BCC phase. In the multi-phase system, the side with a higher work function along the grain boundary is believed to be the first region that becomes hydrogenated and will not be fully dehydrided after 8 h in vacuum at 300 °C. While there is a large step at approximately 50% of the maximum hydrogen storage for the equilibrium pressure measured in gaseous phase, the charge/discharge curves measured electrochemically are very smooth, indicating a synergetic effect between BCC and non-BCC phases in the presence of voltage and charge non-neutrality. Compared to the non-BCC phases, the C14 phase benefits while the TiNi phase deteriorates the high-rate dischargeability (HRD) of the alloys. These synergetic effects are explained by the preoccupied hydrogen sites on the side of the hydrogen storage phase near the grain boundary. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen-absorbing alloys; metal hydride (MH) electrode; Laves phase alloys; body-centered-cubic (BCC) alloys; synergetic effect hydrogen-absorbing alloys; metal hydride (MH) electrode; Laves phase alloys; body-centered-cubic (BCC) alloys; synergetic effect
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Young, K.-H.; Ouchi, T.; Meng, T.; Wong, D.F. Studies on the Synergetic Effects in Multi-Phase Metal Hydride Alloys. Batteries 2016, 2, 15.

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