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Magnetochemistry 2017, 3(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry3040039

Early Stages of Biomineral Formation—A Solid-State NMR Investigation of the Mandibles of Minipigs

1
Institute of Experimental Physics, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, D-09599 Freiberg, Germany
2
Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden, e.V., D-01069 Dresden, Germany
3
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus”, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany
4
Mund-Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie Dr. Dr. Ronald Mai, SN D-01561 Großenhain, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy)
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Abstract

Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy allows for the identification of inorganic species during the biomineral formation, when crystallite particles visible in direct imaging techniques have not yet been formed. The bone blocks surrounding dental implants in minipigs were dissected after the healing periods of two, four, and eight weeks, and newly formed tissues formed around the implants were investigated ex vivo. Two-dimensional 31P-1H heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectroscopy is based on the distance-dependent heteronuclear dipolar coupling between phosphate- and hydrogen-containing species and provides sufficient spectral resolution for the identification of different phosphate minerals. The nature of inorganic species present at different mineralization stages has been determined based on the 31P chemical shift information. After a healing time of two weeks, pre-stages of mineralization with a rather unstructured distribution of structural motives were found. After four weeks, different structures, which can be described as nanocrystals exhibiting a high surface-to-volume ratio were detected. They grew and, after eight weeks, showed chemical structures similar to those of matured bone. In addition to hydroxyapatite, amorphous calcium phosphate, and octacalcium phosphate, observed in a reference sample of mature bone, signatures of ß-tricalcium phosphate and brushite-like structures were determined at the earlier stages of bone healing. View Full-Text
Keywords: solid-state NMR; heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy; biomineralization; pre-mineralization stage solid-state NMR; heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy; biomineralization; pre-mineralization stage
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vyalikh, A.; Elschner, C.; Schulz, M.C.; Mai, R.; Scheler, U. Early Stages of Biomineral Formation—A Solid-State NMR Investigation of the Mandibles of Minipigs. Magnetochemistry 2017, 3, 39.

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