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Fermentation 2017, 3(3), 37; doi:10.3390/fermentation3030037

Optimization of the Enzymatic Saccharification Process of Milled Orange Wastes

Chemical Engineering Department, Chemistry College, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 30 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioconversion Processes)
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Abstract

Orange juice production generates a very high quantity of residues (Orange Peel Waste or OPW-50–60% of total weight) that can be used for cattle feed as well as feedstock for the extraction or production of essential oils, pectin and nutraceutics and several monosaccharides by saccharification, inversion and enzyme-aided extraction. As in all solid wastes, simple pretreatments can enhance these processes. In this study, hydrothermal pretreatments and knife milling have been analyzed with enzyme saccharification at different dry solid contents as the selection test: simple knife milling seemed more appropriate, as no added pretreatment resulted in better final glucose yields. A Taguchi optimization study on dry solid to liquid content and the composition of the enzymatic cocktail was undertaken. The amounts of enzymatic preparations were set to reduce their impact on the economy of the process; however, as expected, the highest amounts resulted in the best yields to glucose and other monomers. Interestingly, the highest content in solid to liquid (11.5% on dry basis) rendered the best yields. Additionally, in search for process economy with high yields, operational conditions were set: medium amounts of hemicellulases, polygalacturonases and β-glucosidases. Finally, a fractal kinetic modelling of results for all products from the saccharification process indicated very high activities resulting in the liberation of glucose, fructose and xylose, and very low activities to arabinose and galactose. High activity on pectin was also observed, but, for all monomers liberated initially at a fast rate, high hindrances appeared during the saccharification process. View Full-Text
Keywords: biorefinery; saccharification; orange waste; valorization; optimization; Taguchi design biorefinery; saccharification; orange waste; valorization; optimization; Taguchi design
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Velasco, D.; Senit, J.J.; de la Torre, I.; Santos, T.M.; Yustos, P.; Santos, V.E.; Ladero, M. Optimization of the Enzymatic Saccharification Process of Milled Orange Wastes. Fermentation 2017, 3, 37.

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