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Fermentation 2016, 2(1), 2; doi:10.3390/fermentation2010002

Chemical Analysis of the Sugar Moiety of Monohexosylceramide Contained in Koji, Japanese Traditional Rice Fermented with Aspergillus

1
Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502, Japan
2
Research and Development Division, Toyo Shinyaku Co., Ltd., 7-28 Yayoigaoka, Tosu-shi, Saga 841-0005, Japan
3
Department of Biochemistry and Applied Biosciences, United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences Kagoshima, Kagoshima University, Korimoto 1-21-24, Kagoshima 890-8580, Japan
4
Industrial Technology Center of Saga Prefecture, 114 Yaemizo, Saga 849-0932, Japan
5
Faculty of Health and Nutrition Science, Nishikyushu University, 4490–9 Ozaki, Kanzaki, Saga 842-8585, Japan
6
Faculty of Biotechnology and Life Science, Sojo University, Ikeda 4-22-1, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Badal C. Saha
Received: 13 August 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beneficial Fermentation Microbes and Their Functional Compounds)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3768 KB, uploaded 2 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Koji, rice fermented with Aspergillus, is used for saccharification of starch contained in crops during the manufacturing of many of Japanese traditional foods and drinks. Japanese people have long eaten koji, and many beneficial substances have been reported to be contained in koji. However, there has been no report on the existence or content of galactosylceramide in koji. To address this issue, we analyzed the chemical composition of the sugar moiety of monohexosylceramide contained in koji, and elucidate that 30.3% of yellow koji is galactosylceramide, 69.7% of that is glucosylceramide, 19.2% of white koji is galactosylceramide, and 80.8% of that is glucosylceramide. This is the first report of the existence and content of galactosylceramide in koji. View Full-Text
Keywords: koji; Aspergillus; glucosylceramide; galactosylceramide koji; Aspergillus; glucosylceramide; galactosylceramide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hamajima, H.; Fujikawa, A.; Yamashiro, M.; Ogami, T.; Kitamura, S.; Tsubata, M.; Tan, S.; Matsunaga, H.; Sawada, K.; Kumagai, S.; Hayashi, N.; Nagao, K.; Yanagita, T.; Oka, T.; Mitsutake, S.; Kitagaki, H. Chemical Analysis of the Sugar Moiety of Monohexosylceramide Contained in Koji, Japanese Traditional Rice Fermented with Aspergillus. Fermentation 2016, 2, 2.

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