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C 2017, 3(3), 23; doi:10.3390/c3030023

Diamond-Like Carbon Nanofoam from Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Carbonization of a Sucrose/Naphthalene Precursor Solution

1
Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, D-33501 Bielefeld, Germany
2
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract

Unusual structure of low-density carbon nanofoam, different from the commonly observed micropearl morphology, was obtained by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of a sucrose solution where a specific small amount of naphthalene had been added. Helium-ion microscopy (HIM) was used to obtain images of the foam yielding micron-sized, but non-spherical particles as structural units with a smooth foam surface. Raman spectroscopy shows a predominant sp2 peak, which results from the graphitic internal structure. A strong sp3 peak is seen in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrons in XPS are emitted from the near surface region which implies that the graphitic microparticles have a diamond-like foam surface layer. The occurrence of separated sp2 and sp3 regions is uncommon for carbon nanofoams and reveals an interesting bulk-surface structure of the compositional units. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon; nanomaterials; nanofoam; nanostructured; porous; ultralight materials; hydrothermal carbonization carbon; nanomaterials; nanofoam; nanostructured; porous; ultralight materials; hydrothermal carbonization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frese, N.; Taylor Mitchell, S.; Bowers, A.; Gölzhäuser, A.; Sattler, K. Diamond-Like Carbon Nanofoam from Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Carbonization of a Sucrose/Naphthalene Precursor Solution. C 2017, 3, 23.

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