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J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030075

Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Mozambique

1
Faculty of Medicine, University Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo 702, Mozambique
2
The National Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, The University of Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 23 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Burden in Different Countries)
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Abstract

Mozambique is a sub-Saharan African country with limited information on the burden of fungal disease. We estimated the burden of serious fungal infections for the general healthy population and for those at risk, including those infected with HIV, patients with asthma, as well as those under intensive care. We consulted the Mozambican National Institute of Statistics Population and Housing Census report to obtain denominators for different age groups. We use modelling and HIV data to estimate the burdens of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and candidiasis. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tuberculosis data were used to estimate the burden of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). In 2016, the Mozambique population was 26.4 million with 1.8 million people reported to be HIV-infected. Estimated annual incidence of fungal infections was: 33,380 PCP, 18,640 CM and 260,025 oral and oesophageal candidiasis cases. Following pulmonary tuberculosis, estimated numbers of people having chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (prevalence) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis complicating asthma are 18,475 and 15,626, respectively. Tinea capitis is common in children with over 1.1 million probably affected. We also highlight from studies in progress of high incidences of histoplasmosis, CM and Pneumocystis jirovecii in adult HIV-infected patients. Prospective epidemiology studies with sensitive diagnostics are required to validate these estimates. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pneumocystis jirovenci; fungal infection; HIV/AIDS; epidemiology; Mozambique Pneumocystis jirovenci; fungal infection; HIV/AIDS; epidemiology; Mozambique
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sacarlal, J.; Denning, D.W. Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Mozambique. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 75.

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