Next Article in Journal
Sporotrichosis: From KOH to Molecular Biology
Next Article in Special Issue
Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Mozambique
Previous Article in Journal
Adhesins in Candida glabrata
Previous Article in Special Issue
Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Argentina
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020061

Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Malawi

1
Blantyre Institute for Community Outreach (BICO), Blantyre, Malawi
2
College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi
3
National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital and The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
4
Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE) (www.LIFE-Worldwide.org), Cheshire SK10 9AR, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Burden in Different Countries)
Full-Text   |   PDF [560 KB, uploaded 22 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Despite efforts to address the burden of fungal infections in Malawi, the prevalence and incidence remain largely unknown. We assessed the annual burden in the general population and among populations at high risk and fungal infection frequencies in each particular population to estimate the national incidence or prevalence. The Malawi population is approximately 17.7 million (2017), with 48% under 15 years of age. Approximately 8% of the population is HIV positive. The most common infections are present in HIV/AIDS patients, with oral candidiasis being the commonest. Life threatening infections among those with AIDS patients include cryptococcal meningitis (8200 cases) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (3690 cases). Pulmonary TB is common, but extra pulmonary TB is rare; an estimated 2329 people have chronic pulmonary aspergillosis after TB. Asthma is a significant problem in Malawi, with an estimated 680,000 adults affected (4.67%) and 14,010 cases of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Tinea capitis is estimated to be present in over 670,000 young people (21% of school age children). The annual incidence of fungal keratitis is difficult to estimate, but as cases are frequently seen in the eye department, is likely to be a minimum of 1825 (10.3/100,000) cases. Among the most serious infections, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are top of the list. Overall, some 1,338,523 (7.54%) people are affected by a serious fungal infection in Malawi. These basic estimates are limited, due to poor record keeping, and require epidemiological studies to validate or modify the substantial burden estimates. National surveillance of fungal infections is urgently needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal; incidence; prevalence; Malawi; HIV/AIDS; epidemiology fungal; incidence; prevalence; Malawi; HIV/AIDS; epidemiology
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kalua, K.; Zimba, B.; Denning, D.W. Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Malawi. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 61.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Fungi EISSN 2309-608X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top