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J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 34; doi:10.3390/jof3030034

Production and New Extraction Method of Polyketide Red Pigments Produced by Ascomycetous Fungi from Terrestrial and Marine Habitats

1
Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles et des Sciences des Aliments (LCSNSA), Université de la Réunion, F-97490 Sainte-Clotilde, Ile de la Réunion, France
2
UMR QualiSud, Université de la Réunion, IUT, F-97410 Saint-Pierre, Ile de la Réunion, France
3
Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante (IPSP-CNR) and Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80055 Portici, NA, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pigments)
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Abstract

The use of ascomycetous fungi as pigment producers opens the way to an alternative to synthetic dyes, especially in the red-dye industries, which have very few natural pigment alternatives. The present paper aimed to bio-prospect and screen out 15 selected ascomycetous fungal strains, originating from terrestrial and marine habitats belonging to seven different genera (Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Dreschlera, and Paecilomyces). We identified four strains, Penicillium purpurogenum rubisclerotium, Fusarium oxysporum, marine strains identified as Talaromyces spp., and Trichoderma atroviride, as potential red pigment producers. The extraction of the pigments is a crucial step, whereby the qualitative and quantitative compositions of each fungal extract need to be respected for reliable identification, as well as preserving bioactivity. Furthermore, there is a growing demand for more sustainable and cost-effective extraction methods. Therefore, a pressurized liquid extraction technique was carried out in this study, allowing a greener and faster extraction step of the pigments, while preserving their chemical structures and bioactivities in comparison to conventional extraction processes. The protocol was illustrated with the production of pigment extracts from P. purpurogenum rubisclerotium and Talaromyces spp. Extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography combined with photodiode array-detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The more promising strain was the isolate Talaromyces spp. of marine origin. The main polyketide pigment produced by this strain has been characterized as N-threoninerubropunctamine, a non-toxic red Monascus-like azaphilone pigment. View Full-Text
Keywords: red pigment; fungal pigment; Talaromyces; Penicillium; marine fungi; ascomycetous; N-threoninerubropunctamine red pigment; fungal pigment; Talaromyces; Penicillium; marine fungi; ascomycetous; N-threoninerubropunctamine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lebeau, J.; Venkatachalam, M.; Fouillaud, M.; Petit, T.; Vinale, F.; Dufossé, L.; Caro, Y. Production and New Extraction Method of Polyketide Red Pigments Produced by Ascomycetous Fungi from Terrestrial and Marine Habitats. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 34.

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