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J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 32; doi:10.3390/jof3030032

Role of Virulence Determinants in Candida albicans’ Resistance to Novel 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone

1
National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Chocimska 24, Warsaw 00-791, Poland
2
Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, Warsaw 00-664, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract

We investigated the role of KEX2, SAP4-6, EFG1, and CPH1 in the virulence of Candida under a novel compound 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone (Compound 4). We examined whether the exposure of C. albicans cells to Compound 4, non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells, reduces their adhesion to the human epithelium. We next assessed whether the exposure of C. albicans cells to Compound 4 modulates the anti-inflammatory response (IL-10) and induces human macrophages to respond to the Candida cells. There was a marked reduction in the growth of the sap4Δsap5Δsap6Δ mutant cells when incubated with Compound 4. Under Compound 4 (minimal fungicidal concentration MFC = 0.5–16 µg/mL): (1) wild type strain SC5314 showed a resistant phenotype with down-regulation of the KEX2 expression; (2) the following mutants of C. albicans: sap4Δ, sap5Δ, sap6Δ, and cph1Δ displayed decreased susceptibility with the paradoxical effect and up-regulation of the KEX2 expression compared to SC5314; (3) the immune recognition of C. albicans by macrophages and (4) the stimulation of IL-10 were not blocked ex vivo. The effect of deleting KEX2 in C. albicans had a minor impact on the direct activation of Compound 4’s antifungal activity. The adhesion of kex2Δ is lower than that of the wild parental strain SC5314, and tends to decrease if grown in the presence of a sub-endpoint concentration of Compound 4. Our results provide evidence that SAP4–6 play a role as regulators of the anti-Candida resistance to Compound 4. Compound 4 constitutes a suitable core to be further exploited for lead optimization to develop potent antimycotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida albicans; antifungal activity; Compound 4; virulence factors; paradoxical growth Candida albicans; antifungal activity; Compound 4; virulence factors; paradoxical growth
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Staniszewska, M.; Bondaryk, M.; Ochal, Z. Role of Virulence Determinants in Candida albicans’ Resistance to Novel 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 32.

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